Prof Chris Todd

Professor of Marine Ecology

tel: 01334 463454
fax: 01334 463443 (general office fax)
email: cdt@st-andrews.ac.uk
room: E34  (Bute)
Bute Building
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
Fife
KY16 9TS
UK


General Information

Additional Information

Further Details

 

Recent Publications

Thorstad, EB, Todd, CD, Uglem, I, Bjørn, PA, Gargan, PG, Vollset, KW, Halttunen, E, Kålås, S, Berg, M & Finstad, B 2016, 'Marine life of the sea trout' Marine Biology, vol 163, no. 3, 47. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-016-2820-3
Arechavala-Lopez, P, Thorstad, E, Todd, CD, Uglem, I, Bjorn, P, Gargan, P, Vollset, K, Halttunen, E, Kalas, S, Berg, M & Finstad, B 2015, 'Efectos del piojo del salmon Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) en las poblaciones de truchas (Salmo trutta) de la costa NE Atlantic: Effects of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) on sea trout (Salmo trutta) popualtions from the NE Atlantic coast' Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia, vol 50, no. 3, pp. 411-426.
Thorstad, E, Todd, CD, Uglem, I, Bjorn, PA, Gargan, P, Vollset, K, Halttunen, E, Kalas, S, Berg, M & Finstad, B 2015, 'Effects of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on wild sea trout Salmo trutta – a literature review' Aquaculture Environment Interactions, vol 7, no. 2, pp. 91-113. DOI: 10.3354/aei00142
Boehme, L, Lonergan, M & Todd, CD 2014, 'A comparison of gridded sea surface temperature datasets for marine ecosystem studies' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 516, pp. 7-22. DOI: 10.3354/meps11023
Friedland, K, Shank, B, Todd, CD, McGinnity, P & Nye, J 2014, 'Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation' Journal of Marine Systems, vol 133, pp. 77-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.03.003
Hageman, S & Todd, CD 2014, 'Hierarchical (mm- to km-scale) environmental variation affecting skeletal phenotype of a marine invertebrate (Electra pilosa, Bryozoa): Implications for fossil species concepts' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol 396, pp. 213-226. DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.01.015
Hanson, NN, Wurster, CM, EIMF, X & Todd, CD 2014, 'Reconstructing marine life-history strategies of wild Atlantic salmon from the stable isotope composition of otoliths' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 475, pp. 249-266. DOI: 10.3354/meps10066
Thorstad, EB, Todd, CD, Bjorn, PA, Gargan, PG, Vollset, KW, Haltunnen, E, Kalas, S, Uglem, I, Berg, M & Finstad, B 2014, Effekter av lakselus på sjøørret - en litteraturoppsummering. NINA.
Krkošek, M, Revie, CW, Finstad, B & Todd, CD 2014, 'Comment on Jackson et al. ‘Impact of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations on migrating Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts at eight locations in Ireland with an analysis of lice-induced marine mortality’' Journal of Fish Diseases, vol 37, no. 4, pp. 415-417. DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12157
Todd, CD, Whyte, B, MacLean, J, Revie, C, Lonergan, M & Hanson, NN 2014, 'A simple method of dating marine growth circuli on scales of wild one sea-winter and two sea-winter Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 71, no. 5, pp. 645-655. DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2013-0359
Friedland, K & Todd, CD 2012, 'Changes in Northwest Atlantic Arctic and Subarctic conditions and the growth response of Atlantic salmon' Polar Biology, vol 35, no. 4, pp. 593-609. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-011-1105-z
Gargan, P, Forde, G, Hazon, N, Russell, DJ & Todd, CD 2012, 'Evidence for sea lice-induced marine mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in western Ireland from experimental releases of ranched smolts treated with emamectin benzoate.' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 69, no. 2, pp. 343-353. DOI: 10.1139/f2011-155
Russell, I, Aprahamian, M, Barry, J, Davidson, I, Fiske, P, Ibbotson, A, Kennedy, R, Maclean, J, Moore, A, Otero, J, Potter, T & Todd, CD 2012, 'The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival' ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol 69, no. 9, pp. 1563-1573. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr208
Finstad, B, Bjorn, P-A, Todd, CD, Whoriskey, F, Gargan, P, Forde, G & Revie, C 2011, The effect of sea lice on Atlantic Salmon and other salmonid species. in O Aas, S Einum, A Klemetsen & J Skurdal (eds), Atlantic Salmon Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 253-276. DOI: 10.1002/9781444327755.ch10
Todd, CD, Friedland, K, MacLean, J, Hazon, N & Jensen, A 2011, Getting into hot water? Atlantic Salmon responses to climate change in freshwater and marine environments. in O Aas, S Einum, A Klemetsen & J Skurdal (eds), Atlantic Salmon Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 409-443. DOI: 10.1002/9781444327755.ch16
Hanson, NN, Wurster, CM, Todd, CD & EIMF 2010, 'Comparison of secondary ion mass spectrometry and micromilling/continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques used to acquire intra-otolith delta O-18 values of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)' Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol 24, no. 17, pp. 2491-2498. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.4646
Hageman, S, Needham, L & Todd, CD 2009, 'Threshold effects of food concentration on the skeletal morphology of the marine bryozoan Electra pilosa (Linnaues, 1767).' Lethaia, vol 42, no. 4, pp. 438-451. DOI: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00164.x
Todd, CD 2009, ICES (2009). Report of the Study Group on Biological Characteristics as Predictors of Salmon Abundance (SGBICEPS). SGBICEPS.
Revie, C, Dill, L, Finstad, B & Todd, CD 2009, Sea Lice Working Group Report: Report from the Technical Group on Sea Lice (A sub-group of the Working Group on Salmon Disease) of the Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue. . vol. NINA Special Report, 39 edn, WWF.
Todd, CD, Hughes, SL, Marshall, CT, MacLean, JC, Lonergan, M & Biuw, M 2008, 'Detrimental effects of recent ocean surface warming on growth condition of Atlantic Salmon' Global Change Biology, vol 14, no. 5, pp. 958-970. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01522.x
Wells, A, Grierson, C, Marshall, L, MacKenzie, ML, Russon, I, Reinhardy, H, Sivertsgård, R, Bjørn, P, Finstad, B, Bonga, S, Todd, CD & Hazon, N 2007, 'Physiological consequences of 'premature freshwater return' for wild sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) postsmolts infested with sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 64, no. 10, pp. 1360-1369. DOI: 10.1139/F07-107
Todd, CD 2007, 'The copepod parasite (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer), Caligus elongatus Nordmann) interactions between wild and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.): a mini review' Journal of Plankton Research, vol 29, pp. I61-I71. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbl067
Wells, A, Grierson, CE, MacKenzie, ML, Russon, IJ, Reinardy, H, Middlemiss, C, Bjorn, PA, Finstad, B, Wendelaar Bonga, SE, Todd, CD & Hazon, N 2006, 'Physiological effects of simultaneous, abrupt seawater entry and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation of wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 63, no. 12, pp. 2809-2821. DOI: 10.1139/F06-160
Todd, CD, Whyte, BDM, MacLean, JC & Walker, AM 2006, 'Ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus) infestations of wild, adult, one sea-winter Atlantic salmon Salmo salar returning to Scotland' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 328, pp. 183-193. DOI: 10.3354/meps328183
Todd, CD, Phelan, PJC, Weinmann, BE, Gude, AR, Andrews, C, Paterson, DM, Lonergan, ME & Miron, G 2006, 'Improvements to a passive trap for quantifying barnacle larval supply to semi-exposed rocky shores' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 332, no. 2, pp. 135-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2005.11.013
Lindsay, H, Todd, CD, Fernandez, T & Huxham, M 2006, 'Recruitment in epifaunal communities: an experimental test of the effects of species composition and age' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 307, pp. 49-57.
Todd, CD, Stevenson, RJ, Reinardy, H & Ritchie, MG 2005, 'Polyandry in an ectoparasitic copepod (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer) despite complex precopulatory and postcopulatory mate guarding' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 303, pp. 225-234.
Todd, CD, Walker, AM, Ritchie, MG, Graves, JA & Walker, AF 2004, 'Population genetic differentiation of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) parasitic on Atlantic and Pacific salmonids: analyses of microsatellite DNA variation among wild and farmed hosts' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 61, no. 7, pp. 1176-1190. DOI: 10.1139/f04-069
Hageman, LL & Todd, CD 2004, Hierarchical sources of environmental variation in a modern bryozoan, Electra pilosa. in International Bryozoology Association: 13th conference, Concepcion, Chile.
Todd, CD 2003, 'Assessment of a trap for measuring larval supply of intertidal barnacles on wave-swept, semi-exposed shores.' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 290, pp. 247-269. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00093-5
Lambert, WJ, Todd, CD & Thorpe, JP 2003, 'Genetic population structure of two intertidal nudibranch molluscs with contrasting larval types: temporal variation and transplant experiments' Marine Biology, vol 142, no. 3, pp. 461-471. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-002-0942-2
Needham, LL, Hageman, SJ & Todd, CD 2003, Effect of food concentration and genotype on hard-part morphology of the marine bryozoan Electra pilosa (L.). in Geological Society of America: Abstracts with Programs . pp. 163.
Gianguzza, P, Airoldi, L, Chemello, R, Todd, CD & Riggio, S 2002, 'Feeding preferences of Oxynoe olivacea (Opisthobranchia : Sacoglossa) among three Caulerpa species' Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol 68, pp. 289-290.
Hageman, SJ, Needham, LL, Bayer, M & Todd, CD Influence of food concentration on zooecial morphology in clonal populations of Bryozoa..
Hageman, SJ, Bayer, M & Todd, CD 2002, 'Partitioning phenotypic variation: implications for morphometric analyses (Bryozoa).'.
Trowbridge, CD & Todd, CD 2001, 'Host-plant change in marine specialist herbivores: Ascoglossan sea slugs on introduced macroalgae' Ecological Monographs, vol 71, no. 2, pp. 219-243. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9615(2001)071[0219:HPCIMS]2.0.CO;2
Lambert, WD, Todd, CD & Thorpe, JP 2000, 'Variation in growth rate and reproductive output in British populations of the dorid nudibranch Adalaria proxima: consequences of restricted larval dispersal?' Marine Biology, vol 137, pp. 149-159.
Todd, CD, Walker, AM, Hoyle, JE, Northcott, SJ, Walker, AF & Ritchie, MG 2000, 'Infestations of wild adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by the ectoparasitic copepod sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer: prevalence, intensity and the spatial distribution of males and females on the host fish' Hydrobiologia, vol 429, no. 1-3, pp. 181-196. DOI: 10.1023/A:1004031318505
Wieczorek, SK, Todd, CD, Cromey, CJ, Murray, AWA & Clare, AS Between site variation in epifaunal larval settlement: the influence of hydrodynamic flow regime, larval supply and substratum biofilming.
Todd, CD, Lambert, WD & Davies, J Some perspectives on the biology and ecology of nudibranch molluscs: generalisations and variations on the theme that prove the rule..
Hageman, SJ, Bayer, MM & Todd, CD 1999, 'Partitioning phenotypic variation: genotypic, environmental and residual components from bryozoan skeletal morphology' Journal of Natural History, vol 33, pp. 1713-1735.
Stanwell-Smith, D, Peck, LS, Clarke, A, Murray, AWA & Todd, CD 1999, 'The distribution, abundance and seasonality of pelagic marine invertebrate larvae in the maritime Antarctic' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, vol 354, pp. 471-484.
Trowbridge, CD & Todd, CD 1999, 'The familiar is exotic: II. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides on Scottish rocky intertidal shores' Botanical Journal of Scotland, vol 51, pp. 161-179.
Trowbridge, CD & Todd, CD 1999, 'The familiar is exotic: I. Codium fragile ssp. atlanticum on Scottish rocky intertidal shores' Botanical Journal of Scotland, vol 51, pp. 139-159.
Todd, CD, Lambert, WJ & Thorpe, JP 1998, 'The genetic structure of intertidal populations of two species of nudibranch molluscs with planktotrophic and pelagic lecithotrophic larval stages: are pelagic larvae "for" dispersal?' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 228, pp. 1-28.
Todd, CD, Baden, S, Pihl, L, Rosenberg, R, Stromberg, J-O, Svane, I & Tiselius, P 1998, 'Larval supply and recruitment of benthic invertebrates: do larvae disperse as far as we believe?' pp. 1-21..
Wieczorek, SK & Todd, CD Inhibition and facilitation of settlement of epifaunal marine invertebrate larvae by microbial biofilm cues.
Todd, CD, Bayer, MM, Hoyle, JE & Wilson, JFB 1997, 'Wave-related abrasion induces formation of extended spines in a marine bryozoan' Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, vol 264, pp. 1605-1611.
Todd, CD & Wieczorek, SK 1997, 'Inhibition and facilitation of bryozoan and ascidian settlement by natural multi-species biofilms: effects of film age and the roles of active and passive larval attachment' Marine Biology, vol 128, pp. 463-473.
Todd, CD, Walker, AM, Wolff, K, Northcott, SJ, Walker, AF, Ritchie, MG, Hoskins, R, Abbott, RJ & Hazon, N 1997, 'Genetic differentiation of populations of the copepod sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer) ectoparasitic on wild and farmed salmonids around the coasts of Scotland: evidence from RAPD markers' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 210, pp. 251-274.
Todd, CD, Hadfield, MG & Snedden, WA 'Juvenile' mating and sperm storage in the tropical corallivorous nudibranch, Phestilla sibogae (Bergh)..
Bayer, MM & Todd, CD Evidence for zooid senescence in the marine bryozoan Electra pilosa.
Lambert, WD, Todd, CD & Hardege, JD Partial characterization and biological activity of a metamorphic inducer of the dorid nudibranch Adalaria proxima (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia).
Jones, HL, Todd, CD & Lambert, WJ 1996, 'Intraspecific variation in embryonic and larval traits of the dorid nudibranch mollusc Adalaria proxima (Alder and Hancock) around the northern coasts of the British Isles' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 202, no. 1, pp. 29-47. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(96)00029-9
Walker, AM & Todd, CD 1996, Physiological adaptation to freshwater and seawater in immature sea trout. in Proceedings of the 3rd Internatioanl Symposium on Fish Endocrinology, Satellite International Symposium on Fish Migration. pp. 70-71.
Bayer, MM & Todd, CD 1996, Effect of polypide regression and other parameters on colony growth in the cheilostomate Electra pilosa (L.). in DP Gordon, AM Smith & JA Grant-Mackie (eds), Bryozoans in Space and Time”. Proceedings of the IBA conference, Wellington, New Zealand. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington.
Wieczorek, SK, Murray, AWA & Todd, CD 1996, 'Seasonal variation in the effects of hard substratum biofilming on settlement of marine invertebrate larvae' Biofouling, vol 10, no. 4, pp. 309-330.
Todd, CD, Laverack, MS & Boxshall, GA 1996, Coastal marine zooplankton: a practical manual for students. 2nd edition. in Coastal marine zooplankton: a practical manual for students. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.
Walker, AM, Hazon, N & Todd, CD 1995, Osmoregulatory physiology of anadromous trout (Salmo trutta L.). in Proceedings of Society for Experimental Biology Symposium. University of St Andrews.
Wieczorek, SK, Clare, AS & Todd, CD 1995, 'Inhibitory and facilitatory effects of microbial films on settlement of Balanus amphitrite amphitrite larvae' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 119, no. 1-3, pp. 221-228.
SOLECAVA, AM, THORPE, JP & Todd, CD 1994, 'HIGH GENETIC SIMILARITY BETWEEN GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTANT POPULATIONS IN A SEA-ANEMONE WITH LOW DISPERSAL CAPABILITIES' Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol 74, no. 4, pp. 895-902.
Todd, CD & KEOUGH, MJ 1994, 'LARVAL SETTLEMENT IN HARD SUBSTRATUM EPIFAUNAL ASSEMBLAGES - A MANIPULATIVE FIELD-STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATUM FILMING AND THE PRESENCE OF INCUMBENTS' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 181, no. 2, pp. 159-187.
Bayer, MM, Cormack, RM & Todd, CD 1994, 'Influence of food concentration on polypide regression in the marine bryozoan Electra pilosa (L.) (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata)' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 178, no. 1, pp. 35-50. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(94)90223-2
Lambert, WJ & Todd, CD 1994, 'Larval dispersal of pelagic veliger larvae of intertidal nudibranch molluscs with contrasting developmental strategies' American Zoologist, vol 34, no. 5, pp. 53a.
Lambert, WJ & Todd, CD 1994, 'Evidence for a water-borne cue inducing metamorphosis in the dorid nudibranch mollusc Adalaria proxima (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia)' Marine Biology, vol 120, no. 2, pp. 265-271. DOI: 10.1007/BF00349687
Todd, CD, Lambert, WJ & Thorpe, JP 1994, The genetic structure of intertidal populations of two species of mollusc on the Scottish west coast: some biogeographic considerations and an assessment of realized larval dispersal. in J Baxter & M Usher (eds), The islands of Scotland: a living marine heritage. The Stationery Office (HMSO), pp. 67-87.
Turner, SJ & Todd, CD 1994, 'Competition for Space in Encrusting Bryozoan Assemblages: The Influence of Encounter Angle, Site and Year' Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol 74, no. 3, pp. 603-622. DOI: 10.1017/S002531540004769X
Soriente, A, Sodano, G, Reed, KC & Todd, C 1993, 'A New Ichthyotoxic Diacylglycerol from the Nudibranch Archidoris pseudoargus 1' Natural Product Letters, vol 3, no. 1, pp. 31-35. DOI: 10.1080/10575639308043834
Turner, SJ & Todd, CD 1993, 'The early development of epifaunal assemblages on artificial substrata at two intertidal sites on an exposed rocky shore in St. Andrews Bay, N.E. Scotland' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 166, no. 2, pp. 251-272. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(93)90223-B
Lambert, CW & Todd, CD 1993, 'Consequences of restricted larval dispersal on growth and fecundity in an annual semelparous mollusc' American Zoologist, vol 33, pp. 116a.
Todd, CD 1992, Patella : Verteidigung gegen Seesterne. in P Emschermann, O Hoffrichter, H Kšrner & D Zissler (eds), Meeresbiologische Exkursion. Gustav Fischer Verlag, pp. 87-90.
Todd, CD 1992, Lanice conchilega: Bau der Wohnröhre. in P Emschermann, O Hoffrichter, H Kšrner & D Zissler (eds), Meeresbiologische Exkursion. Gustav Fischer Verlag, pp. 114-116.
Todd, CD, Bentley, MG & Kinnear, JAM 1992, Torness artificial reef project. in MPS Bain (ed.), Artificial Reefs Research. 1st British Conference on Artificial Reefs. International Centre for Island Technology, pp. 15-21.
Todd, CD 1991, 'THE BIOLOGY OF OPISTHOBRANCH MOLLUSKS - AN INTRODUCTION' Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol 57, pp. 1-4.
Todd, CD, BENTLEY, MG & HAVENHAND, JN 1991, 'LARVAL METAMORPHOSIS OF THE OPISTHOBRANCH MOLLUSK ADALARIA-PROXIMA (GASTROPODA, NUDIBRANCHIA) - THE EFFECTS OF CHOLINE AND ELEVATED POTASSIUM-ION CONCENTRATION' Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol 71, no. 1, pp. 53-72.
Todd, CD 1991, Evolution of nonfeeding planktonic larval forms. in SP Parker (ed.), 1992 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology. McGraw Hill, pp. 499-501.
Todd, CD & Laverack, MS 1991, Coastal marine zooplankton: a practical manual for students. Cambridge University Press.
Todd, CD 1991, 'LARVAL STRATEGIES OF NUDIBRANCH MOLLUSKS - SIMILAR MEANS TO THE SAME END' Malacologia, vol 32, no. 2, pp. 273-289.
Todd, CD 1990, 'Ecology of intertidal and sublittoral cryptic epifaunal assemblages. III. The solitary/colonial dichotomy' Scientia Marina, vol 53, pp. 397-403.
Todd, CD 1990, 'Reproductive effort and larval strategies of benthic marine invertebrates: is there any relationship?' Functional Ecology, vol 4, pp. 132-133.
KEMPF, SC & Todd, CD 1989, 'FEEDING POTENTIAL IN THE LECITHOTROPHIC LARVAE OF ADALARIA-PROXIMA AND TRITONIA-HOMBERGI - AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE' Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol 69, no. 3, pp. 659-682.
Todd, CD & HAVENHAND, JN 1989, 'NUDIBRANCH-BRYOZOAN ASSOCIATIONS - THE QUANTIFICATION OF INGESTION AND SOME OBSERVATIONS ON PARTIAL PREDATION AMONG DORIDOIDEA' Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol 55, pp. 245-259.
Havenhand, JN & Todd, CD 1989, 'Reproductive effort of the nudibranch molluscs Adalaria proxima (Alder & Hancock) and Onchidoris muricata (Muller): an evaluation of techniques' Functional Ecology, vol 3, no. 2, pp. 153-163.
Todd, CD & Havenhand, JN 1988, 'Physiological ecology of Adalaria proxima (Alder et Hancock) and Onchidoris muricata (Müller) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). III. Energy budgets' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 118, no. 2, pp. 191-205. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(88)90239-0
Havenhand, JN & Todd, CD 1988, 'Physiological ecology of Adalaria proxima (Alder et Hancock) and Onchidoris muricata (Müller) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). II. Reproduction' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 118, no. 2, pp. 173-189. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(88)90238-9
Havenhand, JN & Todd, CD 1988, 'Physiological ecology of Adalaria proxima (Alder et Hancock) and Onchidoris muricata (Müller) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). I. Freeding, growth, and respiration' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 118, no. 2, pp. 151-172. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(88)90237-7
Todd, CD & Turner, SJ 1988, 'Ecology of intertidal and sublittoral cryptic epifaunal assemblages. II. Nonlethal overgrowth of encrusting bryozoans by colonial ascidians' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 115, no. 2, pp. 113-126. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(88)90097-4
Todd, CD, Havenhand, JN & Thorpe, JP 1988, 'Genetic differentiation, pelagic larval transport and gene flow between local populations of the intertidal marine mollusc Adalaria proxima (Alder & Hancock)' Functional Ecology, vol 2, no. 4, pp. 441-451.
Todd, CD 1987, 'REPRODUCTIVE ENERGETICS AND LARVAL STRATEGIES OF NUDIBRANCH MOLLUSKS - EFFECTS OF RATION LEVEL DURING THE SPAWNING PERIOD IN ONCHIDORIS-MURICATA (MULLER) AND ADALARIA-PROXIMA (ALDER AND HANCOCK)' American malacological bulletin, vol 5, no. 2, pp. 293-301.
Todd, CD 1987, 'Reproductive and larval strategies of nudibranch molluscs' Annual Report, Western Society of Malacologists, pp. 19.
Hall, SJ & Todd, CD 1986, 'Growth and reproduction in the aeolid nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa (L.)' Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol 52, no. 3, pp. 193-205. DOI: 10.1093/mollus/52.3.193
Havenhand, JN, Thorpe, JP & Todd, CD 1986, 'Estimates of biochemical genetic diversity within and between the nudibranch molluscs Adalaria proxima (Alder & Hancock) and Onchidoris muricata (Muller) (Doridacea: Onchidorididae)' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 95, no. 2, pp. 105-111. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(86)90195-4
Todd, CD 1986, 'Inter-relationships of life-cycle, life-history and larval adaptations of nudibranch molluscs' American malacological bulletin, vol 4, pp. 103-104.
Todd, CD & Turner, SJ 1986, 'Ecology of intertidal and sublittoral cryptic epifaunal assemblages. I. Experimental rationale and the analysis of larval settlement' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 99, no. 3, pp. 199-231. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981
Todd, CD & Havenhand, JN 1985, 'Preliminary Observations on the embryonic and larval development of three dorid nudibranchs' Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol 51, no. 2, pp. 226-228. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.mollus.a065909
Todd, CD 1985, Reproductive strategies of north-temperate rocky shore invertebrates. in The Ecology of Rocky Coasts., Chp. XIV, English Universities Press, pp. 203-219.
Todd, CD 1985, 'SETTLEMENT-TIMING HYPOTHESIS - REPLY' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 23, no. 2, pp. 197-202.
Hall, SJ, Todd, CD & Gordon, AD 1984, 'Prey-species selection by the anemone predator Aeolidia papillosa (L.): The influence of ingestive conditioning and previous dietary history, and a test for switching behaviour' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 82, no. 1, pp. 11-33. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(84)90136-9
Todd, CD 1984, 'Reproductive energetics in relation to larval strategies of two species of littoral dorid nudibranchs' Occasional Publications of the University Marine Biological Station, Millport, pp. 29-31.
Todd, CD 1984, 'Effects of low air-temperature on Laminaria digitata in South-western Scotland' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 16, pp. 199-201.


Click to Edit (authentication required)