Prof Chris Todd

Professor of Marine Ecology

tel: 01334 463454
fax: 01334 463443 (general office fax)
room: E34  (Bute)
Bute Building
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
KY16 9TS

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Recent Publications

Thorstad, EB, Todd, CD, Uglem, I, Bjørn, PA, Gargan, PG, Vollset, KW, Halttunen, E, Kålås, S, Berg, M & Finstad, B 2016, 'Marine life of the sea trout' Marine Biology, vol 163, no. 3, 47. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-016-2820-3
Arechavala-Lopez, P, Thorstad, E, Todd, CD, Uglem, I, Bjorn, P, Gargan, P, Vollset, K, Halttunen, E, Kalas, S, Berg, M & Finstad, B 2015, 'Efectos del piojo del salmon Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) en las poblaciones de truchas (Salmo trutta) de la costa NE Atlantic: Effects of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) on sea trout (Salmo trutta) popualtions from the NE Atlantic coast' Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia, vol 50, no. 3, pp. 411-426.
Thorstad, E, Todd, CD, Uglem, I, Bjorn, PA, Gargan, P, Vollset, K, Halttunen, E, Kalas, S, Berg, M & Finstad, B 2015, 'Effects of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on wild sea trout Salmo trutta – a literature review' Aquaculture Environment Interactions, vol 7, no. 2, pp. 91-113. DOI: 10.3354/aei00142
Boehme, L, Lonergan, M & Todd, CD 2014, 'A comparison of gridded sea surface temperature datasets for marine ecosystem studies' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 516, pp. 7-22. DOI: 10.3354/meps11023
Friedland, K, Shank, B, Todd, CD, McGinnity, P & Nye, J 2014, 'Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation' Journal of Marine Systems, vol 133, pp. 77-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.03.003
Hageman, S & Todd, CD 2014, 'Hierarchical (mm- to km-scale) environmental variation affecting skeletal phenotype of a marine invertebrate (Electra pilosa, Bryozoa): Implications for fossil species concepts' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol 396, pp. 213-226. DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.01.015
Hanson, NN, Wurster, CM, EIMF, X & Todd, CD 2014, 'Reconstructing marine life-history strategies of wild Atlantic salmon from the stable isotope composition of otoliths' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 475, pp. 249-266. DOI: 10.3354/meps10066
Todd, CD, Whyte, B, MacLean, J, Revie, C, Lonergan, M & Hanson, NN 2014, 'A simple method of dating marine growth circuli on scales of wild one sea-winter and two sea-winter Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 71, no. 5, pp. 645-655. DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2013-0359
Friedland, K & Todd, CD 2012, 'Changes in Northwest Atlantic Arctic and Subarctic conditions and the growth response of Atlantic salmon' Polar Biology, vol 35, no. 4, pp. 593-609. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-011-1105-z
Gargan, P, Forde, G, Hazon, N, Russell, DJ & Todd, CD 2012, 'Evidence for sea lice-induced marine mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in western Ireland from experimental releases of ranched smolts treated with emamectin benzoate.' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 69, no. 2, pp. 343-353. DOI: 10.1139/f2011-155
Russell, I, Aprahamian, M, Barry, J, Davidson, I, Fiske, P, Ibbotson, A, Kennedy, R, Maclean, J, Moore, A, Otero, J, Potter, T & Todd, CD 2012, 'The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival' ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol 69, no. 9, pp. 1563-1573. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr208
Finstad, B, Bjorn, P-A, Todd, CD, Whoriskey, F, Gargan, P, Forde, G & Revie, C 2011, The effect of sea lice on Atlantic Salmon and other salmonid species. in O Aas, S Einum, A Klemetsen & J Skurdal (eds), Atlantic Salmon Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 253-276. DOI: 10.1002/9781444327755.ch10
Todd, CD, Friedland, K, MacLean, J, Hazon, N & Jensen, A 2011, Getting into hot water? Atlantic Salmon responses to climate change in freshwater and marine environments. in O Aas, S Einum, A Klemetsen & J Skurdal (eds), Atlantic Salmon Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 409-443. DOI: 10.1002/9781444327755.ch16
Hanson, NN, Wurster, CM, Todd, CD & EIMF 2010, 'Comparison of secondary ion mass spectrometry and micromilling/continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques used to acquire intra-otolith delta O-18 values of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)' Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol 24, no. 17, pp. 2491-2498. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.4646
Hageman, S, Needham, L & Todd, CD 2009, 'Threshold effects of food concentration on the skeletal morphology of the marine bryozoan Electra pilosa (Linnaues, 1767).' Lethaia, vol 42, no. 4, pp. 438-451. DOI: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00164.x
Todd, CD, Hughes, SL, Marshall, CT, MacLean, JC, Lonergan, M & Biuw, M 2008, 'Detrimental effects of recent ocean surface warming on growth condition of Atlantic Salmon' Global Change Biology, vol 14, no. 5, pp. 958-970. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01522.x
Wells, A, Grierson, C, Marshall, L, MacKenzie, ML, Russon, I, Reinhardy, H, Sivertsgård, R, Bjørn, P, Finstad, B, Bonga, S, Todd, CD & Hazon, N 2007, 'Physiological consequences of 'premature freshwater return' for wild sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) postsmolts infested with sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 64, no. 10, pp. 1360-1369. DOI: 10.1139/F07-107
Wells, A, Grierson, CE, MacKenzie, ML, Russon, IJ, Reinardy, H, Middlemiss, C, Bjorn, PA, Finstad, B, Wendelaar Bonga, SE, Todd, CD & Hazon, N 2006, 'Physiological effects of simultaneous, abrupt seawater entry and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation of wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 63, no. 12, pp. 2809-2821. DOI: 10.1139/F06-160
Todd, CD, Whyte, BDM, MacLean, JC & Walker, AM 2006, 'Ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus) infestations of wild, adult, one sea-winter Atlantic salmon Salmo salar returning to Scotland' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 328, pp. 183-193. DOI: 10.3354/meps328183
Todd, CD, Phelan, PJC, Weinmann, BE, Gude, AR, Andrews, C, Paterson, DM, Lonergan, ME & Miron, G 2006, 'Improvements to a passive trap for quantifying barnacle larval supply to semi-exposed rocky shores' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 332, no. 2, pp. 135-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2005.11.013
Lindsay, H, Todd, CD, Fernandez, T & Huxham, M 2006, 'Recruitment in epifaunal communities: an experimental test of the effects of species composition and age' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 307, pp. 49-57.
Todd, CD, Stevenson, RJ, Reinardy, H & Ritchie, MG 2005, 'Polyandry in an ectoparasitic copepod (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer) despite complex precopulatory and postcopulatory mate guarding' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 303, pp. 225-234.
Todd, CD, Walker, AM, Ritchie, MG, Graves, JA & Walker, AF 2004, 'Population genetic differentiation of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) parasitic on Atlantic and Pacific salmonids: analyses of microsatellite DNA variation among wild and farmed hosts' Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol 61, no. 7, pp. 1176-1190. DOI: 10.1139/f04-069
Todd, CD 2003, 'Assessment of a trap for measuring larval supply of intertidal barnacles on wave-swept, semi-exposed shores.' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 290, pp. 247-269. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00093-5
Lambert, WJ, Todd, CD & Thorpe, JP 2003, 'Genetic population structure of two intertidal nudibranch molluscs with contrasting larval types: temporal variation and transplant experiments' Marine Biology, vol 142, no. 3, pp. 461-471. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-002-0942-2
Gianguzza, P, Airoldi, L, Chemello, R, Todd, CD & Riggio, S 2002, 'Feeding preferences of Oxynoe olivacea (Opisthobranchia : Sacoglossa) among three Caulerpa species' Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol 68, pp. 289-290.
Hageman, SJ, Needham, LL, Bayer, M & Todd, CD Influence of food concentration on zooecial morphology in clonal populations of Bryozoa..
Hageman, SJ, Bayer, M & Todd, CD 2002, 'Partitioning phenotypic variation: implications for morphometric analyses (Bryozoa).'.
Trowbridge, CD & Todd, CD 2001, 'Host-plant change in marine specialist herbivores: Ascoglossan sea slugs on introduced macroalgae' Ecological Monographs, vol 71, no. 2, pp. 219-243. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9615(2001)071[0219:HPCIMS]2.0.CO;2
Lambert, WD, Todd, CD & Thorpe, JP 2000, 'Variation in growth rate and reproductive output in British populations of the dorid nudibranch Adalaria proxima: consequences of restricted larval dispersal?' Marine Biology, vol 137, pp. 149-159.
Todd, CD, Walker, AM, Hoyle, JE, Northcott, SJ, Walker, AF & Ritchie, MG 2000, 'Infestations of wild adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by the ectoparasitic copepod sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer: prevalence, intensity and the spatial distribution of males and females on the host fish' Hydrobiologia, vol 429, no. 1-3, pp. 181-196. DOI: 10.1023/A:1004031318505
Wieczorek, SK, Todd, CD, Cromey, CJ, Murray, AWA & Clare, AS Between site variation in epifaunal larval settlement: the influence of hydrodynamic flow regime, larval supply and substratum biofilming.
Todd, CD, Lambert, WD & Davies, J Some perspectives on the biology and ecology of nudibranch molluscs: generalisations and variations on the theme that prove the rule..
Hageman, SJ, Bayer, MM & Todd, CD 1999, 'Partitioning phenotypic variation: genotypic, environmental and residual components from bryozoan skeletal morphology' Journal of Natural History, vol 33, pp. 1713-1735.
Stanwell-Smith, D, Peck, LS, Clarke, A, Murray, AWA & Todd, CD 1999, 'The distribution, abundance and seasonality of pelagic marine invertebrate larvae in the maritime Antarctic' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, vol 354, pp. 471-484.
Trowbridge, CD & Todd, CD 1999, 'The familiar is exotic: II. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides on Scottish rocky intertidal shores' Botanical Journal of Scotland, vol 51, pp. 161-179.
Trowbridge, CD & Todd, CD 1999, 'The familiar is exotic: I. Codium fragile ssp. atlanticum on Scottish rocky intertidal shores' Botanical Journal of Scotland, vol 51, pp. 139-159.
Todd, CD, Lambert, WJ & Thorpe, JP 1998, 'The genetic structure of intertidal populations of two species of nudibranch molluscs with planktotrophic and pelagic lecithotrophic larval stages: are pelagic larvae "for" dispersal?' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 228, pp. 1-28.
Todd, CD, Baden, S, Pihl, L, Rosenberg, R, Stromberg, J-O, Svane, I & Tiselius, P 1998, 'Larval supply and recruitment of benthic invertebrates: do larvae disperse as far as we believe?' pp. 1-21..
Wieczorek, SK & Todd, CD Inhibition and facilitation of settlement of epifaunal marine invertebrate larvae by microbial biofilm cues.
Todd, CD, Bayer, MM, Hoyle, JE & Wilson, JFB 1997, 'Wave-related abrasion induces formation of extended spines in a marine bryozoan' Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, vol 264, pp. 1605-1611.
Todd, CD & Wieczorek, SK 1997, 'Inhibition and facilitation of bryozoan and ascidian settlement by natural multi-species biofilms: effects of film age and the roles of active and passive larval attachment' Marine Biology, vol 128, pp. 463-473.
Todd, CD, Walker, AM, Wolff, K, Northcott, SJ, Walker, AF, Ritchie, MG, Hoskins, R, Abbott, RJ & Hazon, N 1997, 'Genetic differentiation of populations of the copepod sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer) ectoparasitic on wild and farmed salmonids around the coasts of Scotland: evidence from RAPD markers' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 210, pp. 251-274.
Todd, CD, Hadfield, MG & Snedden, WA 'Juvenile' mating and sperm storage in the tropical corallivorous nudibranch, Phestilla sibogae (Bergh)..
Bayer, MM & Todd, CD Evidence for zooid senescence in the marine bryozoan Electra pilosa.
Lambert, WD, Todd, CD & Hardege, JD Partial characterization and biological activity of a metamorphic inducer of the dorid nudibranch Adalaria proxima (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia).

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