Prof David Dritschel

Professor

tel: 01334 46 3721
fax:
email: dgd1@st-andrews.ac.uk
room:  (Mathematical Institute)
Mathematical Institute
University of St Andrews
North Haugh
St Andrews
Fife
University of St Andrews
UK


 



Research Overview

I have sought to combine theoretical analysis and numerical computation in the study of fundamental aspects of atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics, in particular vortex dynamics. The atmosphere and oceans are hugely influenced by both the background planetary rotation as well as the density stratification. These effects, together with the shallow flow geometry (typical horizontal scales are 10 to 100 times larger than typical vertical scales), constrain the motion to be approximately layerwise two-dimensional. This means that vertical motion tends to be very weak compared to horizontal motion over much of the atmosphere and oceans, and stratification surfaces tend to be nearly flat. On these surfaces, a scalar quantity called the "potential vorticity" is often, to a good approximation, conserved following fluid "particles". That is, the potential vorticity (PV) is advected or transported by the nearly horizontal flow on these surfaces.


I have developed a series of lagrangian or partly-lagrangian numerical methods that allow one to accurately conserve potential vorticity, something which is not easy to do using commonly-used numerical methods. These methods have permitted a careful investigation of a range of fundamental processes, including vortex filamentation, stripping, merging, splitting, collapsing, etc, mainly in two-dimensional (height-independent) flows but recently also in three-dimensional flows . Further recent numerical developments have also permitted a careful assessment of the role of gravity waves in single-layer shallow-water flows and internal gravity waves in two- and three-dimensional Boussinesq (ocean-like) flows.


Current research is aimed at building more realistic atmospheric and oceanic models based in part on the numerical methods above, and in collaboration with the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting and the UK Meteorological Office.


For further information, see the Vortex Dynamics Research Group

 
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Recent Publications

Reinaud, JN, Carton, X & Dritschel, DG 2017, 'Interaction between a quasi-geostrophic buoyancy filament and a heton' Fluids, vol 2, no. 3, 37. DOI: 10.3390/fluids2030037
Reinaud, JN, Dritschel, DG & Carton, X 2017, 'Interaction between a surface quasi-geostrophic buoyancy anomaly jet and internal vortices' Physics of Fluids, vol 29, no. 8, 086603. DOI: 10.1063/1.4999474
Burgess, BH, Dritschel, DG & Scott, RK 2017, 'Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence' Physics of Fluids, vol 29, no. 11, 111104. DOI: 10.1063/1.4993144
Dritschel, DG, Gottwald, G & Oliver, M 2017, 'Comparison of variational balance models for the rotating shallow water equations' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 822, pp. 689-716. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2017.292
Jougla, T & Dritschel, DG 2017, 'On the energetics of a two-layer baroclinic flow' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 816, pp. 586-618. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2017.79
Carr, M, Franklin, J, King, SE, Davies, P, Grue, J & Dritschel, DG 2017, 'The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 812, pp. 541-577. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2016.823
Reinaud, JN, Dritschel, DG & Carton, X 2016, 'Interaction between a surface quasi-geostrophic buoyancy filament and an internal vortex' Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, vol 110, no. 6, pp. 461-490. DOI: 10.1080/03091929.2016.1233331
Mckiver, WJ & Dritschel, DG 2016, 'Balanced solutions for an ellipsoidal vortex in a rotating stratified flow' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 802, pp. 333-358. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2016.462
Boatto, S, Dritschel, DG & Schaefer, RG 2016, 'N-body dynamics on closed surfaces: the axioms of mechanics' Proceedings of the Royal Society A - Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, vol 472, no. 2192, 20160020. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0020
Mohebalhojeh, AR, Joghataei, M & Dritschel, DG 2016, 'Toward a PV-based algorithm for the dynamical core of hydrostatic global models' Monthly Weather Review, vol 144, no. 6, pp. 2481-2502. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0379.1
Evans, CM, Singer, MB & Dritschel, DG 2016, 'Modelling subsurface hydrology in Mediterranean regions to investigate spatial and temporal trends' EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienna, Austria, 17/04/16 - 22/04/16, pp. 1005.
Bersanelli, M, Dritschel, DG, Lancellotti, C & Poje, AC 2016, 'Models of interacting pairs of thin, quasi-geostrophic vortices: steady-state solutions and nonlinear stability' Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, vol 110, no. 6, pp. 491-517. DOI: 10.1080/03091929.2016.1250154
Dritschel, DG, Qi, W & Marston, JB 2015, 'On the late-time behaviour of a bounded, inviscid two-dimensional flow' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 783, pp. 1-22. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2015.535
Dritschel, DG & McKiver, WJ 2015, 'Effect of Prandtl's ration on balance in geophysical turbulence' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 777, pp. 569-590. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2015.348
Dritschel, DG, Lucia, M & Poje, AC 2015, 'Ergodicity and spectral cascades in point vortex flows on the sphere' Physical Review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, vol 91, no. 6, 063014. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.063014
Dritschel, DG & Boatto, S 2015, 'The motion of point vortices on closed surfaces' Proceedings of the Royal Society A - Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, vol 471, 20140890. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2014.0890
Tsang, Y-K & Dritschel, DG 2015, 'Ellipsoidal vortices in rotating stratified fluids: beyond the quasi-geostrophic approximation' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 762, pp. 196-231. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2014.630
Harnik, N, Dritschel, DG & Heifetz, E 2014, 'On the equilibration of asymmetric barotropic instability' Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol 140, no. 685, pp. 2444-2464. DOI: 10.1002/qj.2310
Scott, RK & Dritschel, DG 2014, 'Numerical simulation of a self-similar cascade of filament instabilities in the surface quasigeostrophic system' Physical Review Letters, vol 112, no. 14, 144505. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.144505
Plotka, H & Dritschel, DG 2014, 'Simply-connected vortex-patch shallow-water quasi-equilibria' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 743, pp. 481-502. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2014.48
Sutherland, D, Macaskill, C & Dritschel, DG 2013, 'The effect of slip length on vortex rebound from a rigid boundary' Physics of Fluids, vol 25, no. 9, 093104. DOI: 10.1063/1.4821774
Plotka, H & Dritschel, DG 2013, 'Quasi-geostrophic shallow-water doubly-connected vortex equilibria and their stability' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 723, pp. 40-68. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2013.104
Scott, RK & Dritschel, DG 2013, 'Halting scale and energy equilibration in two-dimensional quasigeostrophic turbulence' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 721, 4. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2013.120
Fontane, JJL, Dritschel, DG & Scott, RK 2013, 'Vortical control of forced two-dimensional turbulence' Physics of Fluids, vol 25, no. 1, 015101. DOI: 10.1063/1.4774336
Scott, RK & Dritschel, DG 2012, 'The structure of zonal jets in geostrophic turbulence' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 711, pp. 576-598. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2012.410
Dritschel, DG & Tobias, S 2012, 'Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the small magnetic Prandtl number limit' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 703, pp. 85-98. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2012.195
Dritschel, DG 2012, 'Quasi-geostrophic shallow-water vortex–patch equilibria and their stability' Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, vol 106, no. 6, pp. 574-595. DOI: 10.1080/03091929.2012.674128
Carr, M, King, SE & Dritschel, DG 2012, 'Instability in internal solitary waves with trapped cores' Physics of Fluids, vol 24, no. 1, 016601. DOI: 10.1063/1.3673612
Carr, M, King, SE & Dritschel, DG 2011, 'Numerical simulation of shear-induced instabilities in internal solitary waves' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 683, pp. 263-288. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2011.261
Dritschel, DG & Scott, RK 2011, 'Jet sharpening by turbulent mixing' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. A, Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences , vol 369, no. 1937, pp. 754-770. DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2010.0306
King, SE, Carr, M & Dritschel, DG 2011, 'The steady-state form of large-amplitude internal solitary waves' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 666, pp. 477-505. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112010004301
Płotka, H & Dritschel, DG 2011, 'Shallow-water vortex equilibria and their stability' Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol 318, no. Section 6, 062019. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/318/6/062019
Dritschel, DG 2011, 'An exact steadily rotating surface quasi-geostrophic elliptical vortex' Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, vol 105, no. 4-5, pp. 368-376. DOI: 10.1080/03091929.2010.485997
Dritschel, DG & Fontane, J 2010, 'The combined Lagrangian advection method' Journal of Computational Physics, vol 229, no. 14, pp. 5408-5417. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.03.048
Tran, CV & Dritschel, DG 2010, 'Energy dissipation and resolution of steep gradients in one-dimensional Burgers flows' Physics of Fluids, vol 22, no. 3, 037102. DOI: 10.1063/1.3327284
Tran, CV, Dritschel, DG & Scott, RK 2010, 'Effective degrees of nonlinearity in a family of generalized models of two-dimensional turbulence' Physical Review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, vol 81, no. 1, 016301. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016301
Perrot, X, Reinaud, JN, Carton, X & Dritschel, DG 2010, 'Homostrophic Vortex Interaction under External Strain in a Coupled QG-SQG Model' Regul. Chaotic Dyn., vol 15, no. 1, pp. 66-83. DOI: 10.1134/S1560354710010041
Reinaud, JN & Dritschel, DG 2009, 'Destructive interactions between two counter-rotating quasi-geostrophic vortices' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 639, pp. 195-211. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112009990954
Mohebalhojeh, AR & Dritschel, DG 2009, 'The Diabatic Contour-Advective Semi-Lagrangian Algorithms for the Spherical Shallow Water Equations' Monthly Weather Review, vol 137, no. 9, pp. 2979-2994. DOI: 10.1175/2009MWR2717.1
Dritschel, DG & Scott, RK 2009, 'On the simulation of nearly inviscid two-dimensional turbulence' Journal of Computational Physics, vol 228, pp. 2707-2711.
Dritschel, DG, Scott, RK, Macaskill, C, Gottwald, G & Tran, CV 2009, 'Late time evolution of unforced inviscid two-dimensional turbulence' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 640, pp. 215-233. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112009991121
Dritschel, DG, Scott, RK, Macaskill, C, Gottwald, GA & Tran, CV 2008, 'Unifying scaling theory for vortex dynamics in two-dimensional turbulence' Physical Review Letters, vol 101, no. 9, 094501. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.094501
Dritschel, DG & McIntyre, ME 2008, 'Multiple jets as PV staircases: The Phillips effect and the resilience of eddy-transport barriers' Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol 65, no. 3, pp. 855-874. DOI: 10.1175/2007JAS2227.1
Ozugurlu, E, Reinaud, JN & Dritschel, DG 2008, 'Interaction between two quasi-geostrophic vortices of unequal potential vorticity' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 597, pp. 395-414. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112007000018
Mckiver, WJ & Dritschel, DG 2008, 'Balance in non-hydrostatic rotating stratified turbulence' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 596, pp. 201-219. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112007009421
Bambrey, RR, Reinaud, JN & Dritschel, DG 2007, 'Strong interactions between two corotating quasi-geostrophic vortices' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 592, pp. 117-133. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112007008373
Dritschel, DG, Tran, CV & Scott, RK 2007, 'Revisiting Batchelor's theory of two-dimensional turbulence' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 591, pp. 379-391. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112007008427
Mohebalhojeh, AR & Dritschel, DG 2007, 'Assessing the numerical accuracy of complex spherical shallow-water flows' Monthly Weather Review, vol 135, no. 11, pp. 3876-3894. DOI: 10.1175/2007MWR2036.1
Cherubin, L, Carton, X & Dritschel, DG 2007, 'Vortex dipole formation by baroclinic instability of boundary currents' Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol 37, no. 6, pp. 1661-1677. DOI: 10.1175/JPO3079.1
Dritschel, DG & Viudez, A 2007, 'The persistence of balance in geophysical flows' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 570, pp. 365-383. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112006002990
Tran, CV & Dritschel, DG 2006, 'Large-scale dynamics in two-dimensional Euler and surface quasigeostrophic flows' Physics of Fluids, vol 18, no. 12, pp. 121703. DOI: 10.1063/1.2424496
Smith, RK & Dritschel, DG 2006, 'Revisiting the Rossby-Haurwitz wave test case with Contour Advection' Journal of Computational Physics, vol 217, no. 2, pp. 473-484. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2006.01.011
Dritschel, DG & Ambaum, MHP 2006, 'The diabatic contour advective semi-Lagrangian algorithm' Monthly Weather Review, vol 134, no. 9, pp. 2503-2514. DOI: 10.1175/MWR3202.1
Dritschel, DG & Vanneste, J 2006, 'The instability of a potential vorticity front' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 561, pp. 237-254. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112006000644
Billant, P, Dritschel, DG & Chomaz, J-M 2006, 'Bending and twisting instabilities of columnar elliptical vortices in a rotating strongly stratified fluid' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 561, pp. 73-102. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112006000516
McKiver, WJ & Dritschel, DG 2006, 'The stability of an ellipsoidal vortex in a background shear flow' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 560, pp. 1-17. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112006000462
Tran, CV & Dritschel, DG 2006, 'Vanishing enstrophy dissipation in two-dimensional Navier--Stokes turbulence in the inviscid limit' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 559, pp. 107-116. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112006000577
Viudez, A & Dritschel, DG 2006, 'Spontaneous generation of inertia-gravity wave packets by balanced geophysical flows' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 553, pp. 107-117. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112005008311
Tran, CV & Dritschel, DG 2006, 'Impeded inverse energy transfer in the Charney--Hasegawa--Mima model of quasi-geostrophic flows' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 551, pp. 435-443. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112005008384
Scott, RK & Dritschel, DG 2006, 'Vortex-vortex interactions in the winter stratosphere' Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol 63, no. 2, pp. 726-740. DOI: 10.1175/JAS3632.1
Scott, RK & Dritschel, DG 2005, 'Downward wave propagation on the polar vortex' Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, vol 62, no. 9, pp. 3382-3395. DOI: 10.1175/JAS3526.1
Dritschel, DG, Scott, RK & Reinaud, JN 2005, 'The stability of quasi-geostropic ellipsoidal vortices' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 536, pp. 401-421. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112005004921
Scott, RK & Dritschel, DG 2005, 'Quasi-geostrophic vortices in compressible atmospheres' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 530, pp. 305-325. DOI: 10.1017/s002211200500371x
Reinaud, JN & Dritschel, DG 2005, 'The critical merger distance between two co-rotating quasi-geostrophic vortices' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 522, pp. 357-381. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112004002022
Viúdez, A & Dritschel, DG 2004, 'Optimal PV balance of geophysical flows' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 521, pp. 343-352. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112004002058
Viúdez, A & Dritschel, DG 2004, 'Dynamic potential vorticity initialization and the diagnosis of mesoscale motion' Journal of Physics Oceanography, vol 34, no. 12, pp. 2761-2773. DOI: 10.1175/JPO2648.1
Benilov, ES, Nycander, J & Dritschel, DG 2004, 'Destabilisation of barotropic flows by small-scale topography' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 517, pp. 359-374. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112004000990
Dritschel, DG, Reinaud, JN & McKiver, WJ 2004, 'The quasi-geostrophic ellipsoidal vortex model' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 505, pp. 201-223. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112004008377
Scott, RK, Dritschel, DG, Polvani, LM & Waugh, DW 2004, 'Enhancement of Rossby wave breaking by steep potential vorticity gradients in the winter stratosphere' Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, vol 61, no. 8, pp. 904-918. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0904:EORWBB>2.0.CO;2
Viúdez, A & Dritschel, DG 2004, 'Potential vorticity and the quasigeostrophic and semigeostrophic mesoscale vertical velocity' Journal of Physics Oceanography, vol 34, no. 4, pp. 865-887. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<0865:PVATQA>2.0.CO;2
Mohebalhojeh, AR & Dritschel, DG 2004, 'Contour-advective semi-Lagrangian algorithms for many-layer primitive equation models' Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol 130, pp. 347-364. DOI: 10.1256/qj.03.49
Dritschel, DG A new spherical shallow-water model: building in wave-vortex decomposition.
Dritschel, DG 2004, Contour Dynamics. in A Scott (ed.), Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science. Routledge.
Dritschel, DG & Viúdez, A 2003, 'A balanced approach to modelling rotating stably stratified geophysical flows' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 488, pp. 123-150. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112003004920
Macaskill, C, Padden, WEP & Dritschel, DG 2003, 'The CASL algorithm for quasi-geostrophic flow in a cylinder' Journal of Computational Physics, vol 188, pp. 232-251. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9991(03)00165-7
Viúdez, A & Dritschel, DG 2003, 'Vertical velocity in mesoscale geophysical flows' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 483, pp. 199-223. DOI: 10.1017/s0022112003004191
Reinaud, JN, Dritschel, DG & Koudella, CR 2003, 'The shape of vortices in quasi-geostrophic turbulence' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 474, pp. 175-192. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112002002719
McKiver, WJ & Dritschel, DG 2003, 'The motion of a fluid ellipsoid in a general linear background flow' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 474, pp. 147-173. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112002002859
Dritschel, DG, Gyr, A (ed.) & Kinzelbach, W (ed.) Stokes flows at infinite Rayleigh number.
Reinaud, JN & Dritschel, DG 2002, 'The merger of vertically offset quasi-geostrophic vortices' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 469, pp. 287-315. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112002001854
Viúdez, Á & Dritschel, DG 2002, 'An explicit potential-vorticity-conserving approach to modelling nonlinear internal gravity waves' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 458, pp. 75-101. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112002007747
Dritschel, DG 2002, 'Vortex merger in rotating stratified flows' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 455, pp. 83-101. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112001007364
Caillol, P, Legras, B & Dritschel, DG 2001, 'The erosion of a distributed two-dimensional vortex in a background straining flow' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 441, pp. 369-398. DOI: 10.1017/S002211200100502X
Mohebalhojeh, AR & Dritschel, DG 2001, 'Hierarchies of balance conditions for the f-plane shallow-water equations' Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, vol 58, no. 16, pp. 2411-2426. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<2411:HOBCFT>2.0.CO;2
Lam, JS-L & Dritschel, DG 2001, 'On the beta-drift of an initially circular vortex patch' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 436, pp. 107-129. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112001003974
Cho, JY-K, de la Torre Juárez, M, Ingersoll, AP & Dritschel, DG 2001, 'A high-resolution, three-dimensional model of Jupiter's Great Red Spot' Journal of Geophysical Research, vol 106, no. E3, pp. 5099-5105. DOI: 10.1029/2000JE001287
Rogberg, P & Dritschel, DG Mixing in two-dimensional vortex interactions. DOI: 10.1063/1.1320838
Stegner, A & Dritschel, DG 2000, 'A numerical investigation of the stability of isolated vortices beyond the quasi-geostrophic regime' Journal of Physics Oceanography, vol 30, no. 10, pp. 2562-2573. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(2000)030<2562:ANIOTS>2.0.CO;2
Mohebalhojeh, AR & Dritschel, DG 2000, 'On the representation of gravity waves in numerical models of the shallow water equations' Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol 126, pp. 669-688. DOI: 10.1256/smsqj.56313
Dritschel, DG & Mohebalhojeh, AR 2000, 'The contour-advective semi-Lagrangian algorithm: keeping the balance' pp. 119-136.
Dritschel, DG & Macaskill, C The role of boundary conditions in the simulation of rotating, stratified turbulence.
Dritschel, DG 1999, 'Scale ratios in decaying quasi-geostrophic turbulence' Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C-Geophysics and Space Physics, vol 22, pp. 867-874.
Waugh, DW & Dritschel, DG 1999, 'The dependence of Rossby wave breaking on the vertical structure of the polar vortex' Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol 56, no. 14, pp. 2359-2375. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<2359:TDORWB>2.0.CO;2
Dritschel, DG, Polvani, LM & Mohebalhojeh, AR 1999, 'The contour-advective semi-Lagrangian algorithm for the shallow water equations' Monthly Weather Review, vol 127, no. 7, pp. 1551-1565. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<1551:TCASLA>2.0.CO;2
Dritschel, DG, de la Torre Juarez, M & Ambaum, MHP 1999, 'The three-dimensional vortical nature of atmospheric and oceanic turbulent flows' Physics of Fluids, vol 11, no. 6, pp. 1512-1520. DOI: 10.1063/1.870014
Dritschel, DG 1998, 'On the persistence of non-axisymmetric vortices in inviscid two-dimensional flows.' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 371, pp. 141-155.
Dritschel, DG & Ambaum, MHP The inclusion of non-conservative forcing into a conservative, contout advection algorithm.
Dritschel, DG 1998, 'The simulation and analysis of vortex dynamics in nearly-inviscid 2D and layerwise-2D flows' pp. 33-52.
Dritschel, DG & Ambaum, MHP 1997, 'A contour-advective semi-Lagrangian numerical algorithm for simulating fine-scale conservative dynamical fields.' Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol 123, no. 540, pp. 1097-1130. DOI: 10.1256/smsqj.54014
Dritschel, DG & de la Torre Juárez, M 1996, 'The instability and breakdown of tall columnar vortices in a quasi-geostrophic fluid.' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol 328, pp. 129-160. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112096008671


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