Dr Luke Rendell

MASTS Reader in Biology

tel: 01334 463499
fax:
email: ler4@st-andrews.ac.uk
room: 308  (Harold Mitchell)
Harold Mitchell Building
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
Fife
KY16 9TH
UK


General Information

Additional Information


"The true biologist deals with life, with teeming boisterous life, and learns something from it, learns that the first rule of life is living"
John Steinbeck, The Log from the Sea of Cortez


 

ResearcherID: G-2594-2010  orcid.org/0000-0002-1121-9142  

I am a Reader in Biology supported by the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology Scotland (MASTS). I am affiliated with the Scottish Ocean Institute, Sea Mammal Research Unit, the Centre for Biological Diversity, the Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, and the Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciences.

I have broad research interests, largely centred around the evolution of learning, behaviour and communication, with a special focus on marine mammals.

Latest paper
Dunn, C, Tyack, PL, Miller, P & Rendell, LE 2017, 'Short first click intervals in echolocation trains of three species of deep diving odontocetes' Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol 141, no. 2, pp. 900-907. DOI: 10.1121/1.4976084

Sometimes deep-diving odontocetes make 'double clicks' at the start of echoloction click trains. In this paper we analysed inter-click-intervals in recordings from suction cup tags. We refer to these 'double clicks' as short first intervals (SFIs). We found that the context of SFI occurrence varies across three deep-diving species - Blainville's beaked whales (87% of click trains that were preceded by a terminal buzz started with an SFI), Cuvier's beaked whales (only sub-adult animals produced SFIs), and sperm whales (much more likely to produce SFIs on the first click train of a dive). These species differences in click production could provide a window into the evolution of odontocete echolocation.

Book
Our book, The Cultural Lives of Whales and Dolphins is even available at Amazon! Hear it discussed on BBC Radio 4's "Start the Week". Listen to a podcast of a discussion between myself and author Phillip Hoare at the LSE Philosophy Forum here

Research
Sperm whale society and ecology
I have been studying the ecology, communication and societies of sperm whales, the largest of the toothed whales, showing how long lasting social groups use distinctive vocal dialects that appear to be culturally transmitted. Part of this work is my involvement in running the Balearics Sperm Whale Project and as a collaborator of the Dominica Sperm Whale Project.

Culture in whales and dolphins
In whales and dolphins we find examples of both complex communication and apparently widespread social learning, a simple form of culture. I am using statistical models to assess the evidence for social learning in wild cetaceans.

Evolutionary modelling
I also use evolutionary simulation models to understand how these processes like social learning might have evolved, and how they might be related to the evolution of other kinds of behaviour, such as cooperation and niche-construction.

Human social learning
I use experimental approaches to understand how we negotiate the trade-offs involved in deciding whether to use social information to make simple decisions, as a window into how we have evolved to make best use of our cultural inheritance.

East Coast Marine Mammal Acoustic Study (ECOMMAS)
We are deploying passive listening buoys along the Scottish coastline in collaboration with Marine Scotland Science to monitor the impact of coastal windfarm development and also to give insight into acoustic behaviour of marine mammals.
 

Science without borders!

An approach to academic life: 12 guidelines for survival

Alumni
Dr Charlotte Dunn finished her PhD "Insights into Blainville's Beaked Whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) communication" in January 2015

Dr Thomas Morgan completed his PhD, co-supervised with Kevin Laland and titled "Experimental studies of human social learning and its evolution" in December 2013

Dr Laurel Fogarty completed her PhD, co-supervised with Kevin Laland and titled "From social learning to culture: Mathematical and computational models of cultural evolution" in June 2012

Dr Ricardo Antunes completed his PhD, co-supervised with Phil Hammond and Jonathan Gordon, and titled "Variation in sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) coda vocalizations and social structure in the North Atlantic Ocean" in March 2009


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Recent Publications

Garland, EC, Rendell, LE, Lilley, M, Poole, MM, Allen, J & Noad, MJ 2017, 'The devil is in the detail: quantifying vocal variation in a complex, multi-levelled, and rapidly evolving display' Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.
Dunn, C, Tyack, PL, Miller, P & Rendell, LE 2017, 'Short first click intervals in echolocation trains of three species of deep diving odontocetes' Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol 141, no. 2, pp. 900-907. DOI: 10.1121/1.4976084
Dunn, C, Claridge, D, Durban, J, Shaffer, J, Moretti, D, Tyack, P & Rendell, L 2017, 'Insights into Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) echolocation ontogeny from recordings of mother-calf pairs' Marine Mammal Science, vol 33, no. 1, pp. 356-364. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12351
Jones, EL, Rendell, LE, Pirotta, E & Long, JA 2016, 'Novel application of a quantitative spatial comparison tool to species distribution data' Ecological Indicators, vol 70, pp. 67-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.05.051
Cantor, M, Whitehead, H, Gero, S & Rendell, LE 2016, 'Cultural turnover among Galápagos sperm whales' Royal Society Open Science, vol 3, no. 10, 160615. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160615
Mcloughlin, M, Ingram, S, Rendell, LE, Lamoni, LU, Kirke, A, Garland, EC, Noad, M & Miranda, E 2016, Adapting a computational multi agent model for humpback whale song research for use as a tool for algorithmic composition. in R Großmann & G Hajdu (eds), Proceedings SMC 2016. Proceedings of the SMC Conferences, Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg, pp. 274-280, 13th Sound and Music Computing Conference and Summer School, Hamburg, Germany, 31-3 September.
Wang, Z-T, Au, WWL, Rendell, L, Wang, K-X, Wu, H-P, Wu, Y-P, Liu, J-C, Duan, G-Q, Cao, H-J & Wang, D 2016, 'Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China' PeerJ, vol 4, pp. 1-38. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1695
Gero, S, Whitehead, H & Rendell, L 2016, 'Individual, unit and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas' Royal Society Open Science, vol 3, 150372. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150372
Rendell, LE & Frantzis, A 2016, Mediterranean sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus: the precarious state of a lost tribe. in G Notarbartolo di Sciara, M Podestà & BE Curry (eds), Mediterranean Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation. 1st edn, Advances in Marine Biology, vol. 75, Academic Press/Elsevier , pp. 37-74. DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.001
Morgan, TJH, Uomini, NT, Rendell, LE, Chouinard-Thuly, L, Street, SE, Lewis, HM, Cross, CP, Evans, C, Kearney, R, de la Torre, I, Whiten, A & Laland, KN 2015, 'Experimental evidence for the co-evolution of hominin tool-making teaching and language' Nature Communications, vol 6, 6029. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7029
Morgan, TJH, Cross, CP & Rendell, LE 2015, Nothing in Human Behavior Makes Sense Except in the Light of Culture: Shared Interests of Social Psychology and Cultural Evolution. in V Zeigler-Hill, LLM Welling & TK Shackelford (eds), Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology. Springer, New York. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-12697-5
Whitt, A, Baran, M, Bryson, M & Rendell, LE 2015, 'First Report of Killer Whales Harassing Sperm Whales in the Gulf of Mexico' Aquatic Mammals, vol 41, no. 3, pp. 252-255. DOI: 10.1578/AM.41.3.2015.252
Gero, S & Rendell, LE 2015, Oceanic societies: studying cetaceans with a social network approach. in J Krause, R James, DW Franks & DP Croft (eds), Animal Social Networks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 139-149.
Whitehead, H & Rendell, LE 2014, The Cultural Lives of Whales and Dolphins. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Carpinelli, E, Gauffier, P, Verborgh, P, Airoldi, S, David, L, Di-Méglio, N, Cañadas, A, Frantzis, A, Rendell, L, Lewis, T, Mussi, B, Pace, DS & De Stephanis, R 2014, 'Assessing sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) movements within the western Mediterranean Sea through photo-identification' Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol 24, no. S1, pp. 23-30. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2446
Rendell, L, Simião, S, Brotons, JM, Airoldi, S, Fasano, D & Gannier, A 2014, 'Abundance and movements of sperm whales in the western Mediterranean basin' Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol 24, no. S1, pp. 31-40. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2426
Buchan, SJ, Hucke-Gaete, R, Rendell, LE & Stafford, KM 2014, 'A new song recorded from blue whales in the Corcovado Gulf, Southern Chile, and an acoustic link to the Eastern Tropical Pacific' Endangered Species Research, vol 23, no. 3, pp. 241-252. DOI: 10.3354/esr00566
Rendell, LE & Gero, S 2014, 'The behavioral ecologist's essential social networks cookbook--comment on Pinter-Wollman et al.' Behavioral Ecology, vol 25, no. 2, pp. 257-258. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/art099
Laland, KN & Rendell, LE 2013, 'Cultural memory' Current Biology, vol 23, no. 17, pp. R736-R740. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.07.071
Allen, J, Weinrich, M, Hoppitt, W & Rendell, LE 2013, 'Network-Based Diffusion Analysis Reveals Cultural Transmission of Lobtail Feeding in Humpback Whales' Science, vol 340, no. 6131, pp. 485-488. DOI: 10.1126/science.1231976
Dunn, CA, Hickmott, LS, Talbot, D, Boyd, I & Rendell, LE 2013, 'Mid-frequency broadband sounds of Blainville's beaked whales: Bioacoustics' Bioacoustics, vol 22, no. 2, pp. 153-163. DOI: 10.1080/09524622.2012.757540
Barkow, J, O'Gorman, R & Rendell, LE 2013, Cultural transmission. in RJ McGee & RL Warms (eds), Theory in Social and Cultural Anthropology: An Encyclopedia. vol. 1, Sage, pp. 154-158.
Gannier, A, Petiau, E, Dulau, V & Rendell, L 2012, 'Foraging dives of sperm whales in the north-western Mediterranean Sea' Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol 92, no. Special Issue 08, pp. 1799-1808. DOI: 10.1017/S0025315412001087
Fogarty, L, Rendell, L & Laland, KN 2012, 'Mental time travel, memory and the social learning strategies tournament' Learning and Motivation, vol 43, no. 4, pp. 241-246. DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2012.05.009
Morgan, TJH, Rendell, LE, Ehn, M, Hoppitt, WJE & Laland, KN 2012, 'The evolutionary basis of human social learning' Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, vol 279, no. 1729, pp. 653-662. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1172
Barkow, JH, O'Gorman, R & Rendell, L 2012, 'Are the new mass media subverting cultural transmission?' Review of General Psychology, vol 16, no. 2, pp. 121-133. DOI: 10.1037/a0027907
Whitehead, H, Antunes, RN, Gero, S, Wong, SNP, Engelhaupt, D & Rendell, LE 2012, 'Multilevel Societies of Female Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the Atlantic and Pacific: Why Are They So Different?' International Journal of Primatology, vol 33, DOI 10.1007/s10764-012-9598-z, pp. 1142-1164. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-012-9598-z
Laland, KN, Dean, L, Hoppitt, WJE, Rendell, LE & Webster, MM 2012, Social learning: strategies, mechanisms and models. in TR Zentall & EA Wasserman (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Cognition. 2 edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 832-850.
Rendell, LE, Mesnick, S, Dalebout, M, Burtenshaw, J & Whitehead, H 2012, 'Can Genetic Differences Explain Vocal Dialect Variation in Sperm Whales, Physeter macrocephalus?' Behavior Genetics, vol 42, no. 2, pp. 332-343. DOI: 10.1007/s10519-011-9513-y
Fogarty, L, Rendell, LE & Laland, KN 2012, 'The importance of space in models of social learning, cultural evolution and niche construction' Advances in Complex Systems, vol 15, no. 1150001, pp. 1-17. DOI: 10.1142/S0219525911003311
Rendell, LE, Boyd, R, Enquist, M, Feldman, M, Fogarty, L & Laland, KN 2011, 'How copying affects the amount, evenness and persistence of cultural knowledge: insights from the social learning strategies tournament' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. B, Biological Sciences, vol 366, pp. 1118-1128. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0376
Antunes, R, Schulz, T, Gero, S, Whitehead, H, Gordon, JCD & Rendell, LE 2011, 'Individually distinctive acoustic features in sperm whale codas' Animal Behaviour, vol 81, no. 4, pp. 723-730. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.12.019
Rendell, LE, Fogarty, L & Laland, KN 2011, 'Runaway cultural niche construction' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. B, Biological Sciences, vol 366, no. 1566, pp. 823-835. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0256
Mesnick, SL, Taylor, BL, Archer, FI, Martien, KK, Trevino, SE, Hancock-Hanser, BL, Moreno Medina, SC, Pease, VL, Robertson, KM, Straley, JM, Baird, RW, Calambokidis, J, Schorr, GS, Wade, P, Burkanov, V, Lunsford, CR, Rendell, L & Morin, PA 2011, 'Sperm whale population structure in the eastern and central North Pacific inferred by the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA' Molecular Ecology Resources, vol 11, pp. 278-298. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02973.x
Schulz, TM, Whitehead, H, Gero, S & Rendell, LE 2011, 'Individual vocal production in a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) social unit' Marine Mammal Science, vol 27, no. 1, pp. 149-166. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00399.x
Pirotta, E, Matthiopoulos, J, MacKenzie, ML, Scott Hayward, LAS & Rendell, LE 2011, 'MODELLING SPERM WHALE HABITAT PREFERENCE: A NOVEL APPROACH COMBINING TRANSECT AND FOLLOW DATA' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 436, pp. 257-272.
Rendell, LE, Fogarty, L, Hoppitt, WJE, Morgan, TJH, Webster, MM & Laland, KN 2011, 'Cognitive culture: Theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies' Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol 15, pp. 68-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.12.002
Antunes, R, Rendell, L & Gordon, J 2010, 'Measuring inter-pulse intervals in sperm whale clicks: consistency of automatic estimation methods' Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol 127, no. 5, pp. 3239-3247. DOI: 10.1121/1.3327509
Pike, TW, Kendal, JR, Rendell, LE & Laland, KN 2010, 'Learning by proportional observation in a species of fish' Behavioral Ecology, vol 21, no. 3, pp. 570-575. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arq025
Rendell, LE, Boyd, R, Cownden, D, Enquist, M, Eriksson, K, Feldman, MW, Fogarty, L, Ghirlanda, S, Lillicrap, T & Laland, KN 2010, 'Why Copy Others? Insights from the Social Learning Strategies Tournament' Science, vol 328, no. 5975, pp. 208-213. DOI: 10.1126/science.1184719
Buchan, SJ, Rendell, LE & Hucke-Gaete, R 2010, 'Preliminary recordings of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) vocalizations in the Gulf of Corcovado, northern Patagonia, Chile' Marine Mammal Science, vol 26, no. 2, pp. 451-459. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00338.x
Rendell, LE, Fogarty, L & Laland, KN 2010, 'Rogers' paradox recast and resolved: population structure and the evolution of social learning strategies' Evolution, vol 64, no. 2, pp. 534-548. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00817.x
Engelhaupt, D, Hoelzel, AR, Nicholson, C, Frantzis, A, Mesnick, S, Gero, S, Whitehead, H, Rendell, LE, Miller, P, De Stefanis, R, Canadas, A, Airoldi, S & Mignucci-Giannoni, AA 2009, 'Female philopatry in coastal basins and male dispersion across the North Atlantic in a highly mobile marine species, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)' Molecular Ecology, vol 18, pp. 4193-4205. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04355.x
Gero, S, Engelhaupt, D, Rendell, LE & Whitehead, H 2009, 'Who Cares? Between-group variation in alloparental care-giving in sperm whales' Behavioral Ecology, vol 20, no. 4, pp. 838-843. DOI: doi:10.1093/beheco/arp068
Kendal, J, Rendell, LE, Pike, T & Laland, KN 2009, 'Nine-spined sticklebacks deploy a hill-climbing social learning strategy' Behavioral Ecology, vol 20, no. 2, pp. 238-244. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arp016
Schulz, TM, Whitehead, H & Rendell, LE 2009, 'Off-axis effects on the multi-pulse structure of sperm whale coda clicks' Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol 125, no. 3, pp. 1768-1773. DOI: 10.1121/1.3075598
Schulz, TM, Whitehead, H, Gero, S & Rendell, LE 2008, 'Overlapping and matching of codas in vocal interactions between sperm whales: Insights into communication function.' Animal Behaviour, vol 76, pp. 1977-1988. DOI: doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.07.032
Marino, L, Butti, C, Connor, RC, Fordyce, RE, Herman, LM, Hof, PR, Lefebvre, L, Lusseau, D, McCowan, B, Nimchinsky, EA, Pack, AA, Reidenberg, JS, Reiss, D, Rendell, LE, Uhen, MD, Van der Gucht, E & Whitehead, H 2008, 'A claim in search of evidence: Reply to Manger’s thermogenesis hypothesis of cetacean brain structure' Biological Review, vol 83, pp. 417-440. DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2008.00049.x
Quick, NS, Rendell, LE & Janik, VM 2008, 'A mobile acoustic localization system for the study of free ranging dolphins during focal follows' Marine Mammal Science, vol 24, pp. 979-989. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2008.00231.x
Hoppitt, WJE, Brown, GR, Kendal, R, Rendell, LE, Thornton, A, Webster, MM & Laland, KN 2008, 'Lessons from Animal Teaching' Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol 23, no. 9, pp. 486-493. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.05.008
Miller, P, Aoki, K, Rendell, LE & Amano, M 2008, 'Stereotypical resting behavior of the sperm whale' Current Biology, vol 18, no. 1, pp. R21-R23. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.003
Brotons, JM, Grau, AM & Rendell, L 2008, 'Estimating the impact of interactions between bottlenose dolphins and artisanal fisheries around the Balearic Islands' Marine Mammal Science, vol 24, no. 1, pp. 112-127. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00164.x
Brotons, JM, Munilla, Z, Grau, AM & Rendell, LE 2008, 'Do pingers reduce interactions between bottlenose dolphins and nets around the Balearic Islands?' Endangered Species Research, vol 5, no. 2-3, pp. 301-308. DOI: 10.3354/esr00104
Rendell, LE, Hoppitt, WJE & Kendal, J 2007, 'Is all learning innovation?' Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol 30, no. 4, pp. 421-422. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X0700252X
Marino, L, Connor, RC, Fordyce, RE, Herman, LM, Hof, PR, Lefebvre, L, Lusseau, D, McCowan, B, Nimchinsky, EA, Pack, AA, Rendell, L, Reidenberg, JS, Reiss, D, Uhen, MD, Van der Gucht, E & Whitehead, H 2007, 'Cetaceans have complex brains for complex cognition' PLoS Biology, vol 5, no. 5, e139, pp. 966-972. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050139
Marcoux, M, Whitehead, H & Rendell, LE 2007, 'Indications of fitness differences among vocal clans of sperm whales' Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol 61, no. 7, pp. 1093-1098. DOI: 10.1007/s00265-006-0342-6
Marcoux, M, Whitehead, H & Rendell, LE 2007, 'Sperm whale diet variation by sex, location, year, social group and clan: Evidence from stable isotopes' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 333, pp. 309-314. DOI: 10.3354/meps333309
Marcoux, M, Whitehead, H & Rendell, LE 2006, 'Coda vocalizations recorded in breeding areas are almost entirely produced by mature female sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus)' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol 84, no. 4, pp. 609-614. DOI: 10.1139/Z06-035
Schulz, T, Whitehead, H & Rendell, LE 2006, 'Remotely-Piloted Acoustic Array For Studying Sperm Whale Vocal Behaviour' Canadian Acoustics, vol 34, no. 4, pp. 54-55.
Weilgart, L, Whitehead, H, Rendell, LE & Calambokidis, J 2005, 'Signal-to-noise: Funding structure versus ethics as a solution to conflict-of-interest' Marine Mammal Science, vol 21, pp. 779-781. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01265.x
Rendell, LE & Whitehead, H 2005, 'Spatial and temporal variation in sperm whale coda vocalisations: Stable usage and local dialects' Animal Behaviour, vol 70, pp. 191-198. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.03.001
Rendell, LE, Whitehead, H & Coakes, A 2005, 'Do breeding male sperm whales show preferences among vocal clans of females?' Marine Mammal Science, vol 21, no. 2, pp. 317-322.
Rendell, LE & Whitehead, H 2005, 'Coda playbacks to sperm whales in Chilean waters' Marine Mammal Science, vol 21, no. 2, pp. 307-316.
Whitehead, H, Rendell, LE, Osborne, RW & Wursig, B 2004, 'Culture and conservation of non-humans with reference to whales and dolphins: review and new directions' Biological Conservation, vol 120, pp. 427-437. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.03.017
Rendell, L & Whitehead, H 2004, 'Do sperm whales share coda vocalizations? - Insights into coda usage from acoustic size measurement' Animal Behaviour, vol 67, pp. 865-874. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.04.018
Whitehead, H & Rendell, LE 2004, 'Movements, habitat use and feeding success of cultural clans of South Pacific sperm whales.' Journal of Animal Ecology, vol 73, pp. 190-196.
Rendell, LE, Whitehead, H & Escribano, R 2004, 'Sperm whale habitat use and foraging success of northern Chile: Evidence of ecological links between coastal and pelagic systems' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 275, pp. 289-295.
Rendell, LE & Whitehead, H 2003, 'Vocal clans in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus).' Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, vol 270, pp. 225-231. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2002.2239
Rendell, LE & Whitehead, H 2003, 'Comparing repertoires of sperm whale codas: a multiple methods approach.' Bioacoustics, vol 14, pp. 61-81.
Rendell, L & Whitehead, H 2001, 'Cetacean culture: Still afloat after the first naval engagement of the culture wars' Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol 24, no. 2, pp. 360-382.
Rendell, LE & Whitehead, H 2001, 'Culture in whales and dolphins.' Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol 24, no. 2, pp. 309-382.
Rendell, LE, Matthews, J, Gill, A, Gordon, JCD & Macdonald, DW 1999, 'Quantitative analysis of the tonal calls of five odontocete species.' Journal of Zoology, vol 249, pp. 403-410.
Rendell, LE & Gowans, S 1999, 'Head-butting in northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus): a possible function for big heads?' Marine Mammal Science, vol 15, no. 4, pp. 1342-1350.
Rendell, LE & Gordon, JCD 1999, 'Vocal response of long-finned pilot whales to military sonar in the Ligurian Sea.' Marine Mammal Science, vol 15, no. 1, pp. 198-204.
Matthews, J, Rendell, LE, Gordon, JCD & Macdonald, DW 1999, 'A review of frequency and time parameters of cetacean tonal calls.' Bioacoustics, vol 10, pp. 47-71.


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