Dr Valerie Smith


tel: 01334 463474/7210
fax: 01334 463443
email: vjs1@st-andrews.ac.uk
room: E36  (Bute)
Bute Building
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
KY16 9TS

General Information

Additional Information

Education Secretary, International Society for Developmental and Comparative Immunology (ISDCI).

Editorial Board Member: Fish and Shellfish Immunology
Editorial Advisory Board Member: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Honorary Professor: Department of Health, Florida InternationalUniversity, Miami, Florida 1996-1997.
Awards: Burroughs Wellcome Visiting Professor, American Societyfor Microbiology: Florida International University, Miami, Florida(1997-1998)


Research group: Dr. Christopher Hauton, Dr John Hammond, Ms Virginia Burgess, Mr. Andrew Desbois.

Collaborators: Dr Liz Dyrynda, School of Life Sciences, Heriot Watt University
Dr Margarita Concha, Institute of Biochemistry, University Austral Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Dr J-R Bonami University of Montpellier II, France
Dr Janet Brown, Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling
Prof Miki Nakao, School of Bioresouce and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, Japan
Dr Sylvia L. Smith, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, USA
Dr Ailsa Hall, SMRU, Gatty Laboratory, Unversity of St Andrews
Dr Graham Kemp, BMS, University of St Andrews
Dr Gerard Molle, University of Montpellier 2, France
Dr Andrew Means Spragg, Aquapharm Biodiversity, Ltd, Scotland


Recent Publications

Suleiman, S, Smith, VJ & Dyrynda, EA 2017, 'Unusual tissue distribution of carcinin, an antibacterial crustin, in the crab, Carcinus maenas, reveals its multi-functionality' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 76, pp. 274-284. DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2017.06.010
Agnew, R, Smith, VJ & Fowkes, R 2016, 'Wind turbines cause chronic stress in badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain' Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol 52, no. 3, pp. 459-467. DOI: 10.7589/2015-09-231
Smith, VJ, Accorsi, A & Malagoli, D 2016, Hematopoiesis and hemocytes in pancrustacean and molluscan models. in D Malagoli (ed.), The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification. 1st edn, Academic Press/Elsevier , pp. 1-28. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801975-7.00001-3
Smith, VJ 2016, Immunology of invertebrates: Cellular. in Encyclopedia of Life Sciences: Wiley. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0002344.pub3
Smith, VJ, Robb, C, Rossi, A, Gray, R & Dyrynda, E 2015, Haemocyte extracellular chromatin facilitates encapsulation reactions in a decapod host. in 13th International Congress of the International Society of Developmental and Comparative Immunology, Murcia, Spain .
Desbois, AP & Smith, VJ 2015, Disk Diffusion Assay to Assess the Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Algal Extracts. in Natural Products From Marine Algae. vol. 1308, Springer, Clifton New Jersey USA, pp. 403-410.
Smith, V & Dyrynda, E 2015, 'Antimicrobial proteins: from old proteins, new tricks' Molecular Immunology, vol 68, no. Issue 2, Part B, pp. 383-398. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.08.009
Robb, C, Dyrynda, E, Gray, R, Rossi, A & Smith, VJ 2014, 'Invertebrate extracellular phagocyte traps show that chromatin is an ancient defence weapon' Nature Communications, vol 5, 4627. DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms5627
Andrews, PLR, Darmaillacq, A-S, Dennison, N, Gleadall, IG, Hawkins, P, Messenger, JB, Osorio, D, Smith, VJ & Smith, JA 2013, 'The identification and management of pain, suffering and distress in cephalopods, including anaesthesia, analgesia and humane killing' Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 447, pp. 46-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2013.02.010
Smith, VJ 2011, 'Phylogeny of whey acidic protein (WAP) four-disulfide core proteins and their role in lower vertebrates and invertebrates' Biochemical Society Transactions, vol 39, no. 5, pp. 1403-1408. DOI: 10.1042/BST0391403
Roulston, C & Smith, VJ 2011, 'Isolation and in vitro characterisation of prohaemocytes from the spider crab, Hyas araneus (L.)' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 35, no. 5, pp. 537-544. DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2010.12.012
Smith, VJ, Roulston, C & Dyrynda, EA 2010, The Shrimp Immune System. in V Alday-Sanz (ed.), The Shrimp Book. 1 edn, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham UK, pp. 89-148.
Smith, VJ 2010, Immunology of Invertebrates: Cellular. in Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS) On-line Library. John Wiley and Sons. DOI: DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0002344.pub2
Smith, VJ, Desbois, AP & Dyrynda, E 2010, 'Conventional and unconventional antimicrobials from fish, marine invertebrates and micro-algae' Marine Drugs, vol 8, no. 4, pp. 1213-1262. DOI: 10.3390/md8041213
Desbois, AP & Smith, VJ 2010, 'Antibacterial free fatty acids: activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential' Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol 85, no. 6, pp. 1629 – 1642. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-009-2355-3
Desbois, AP, Walton, MJ & Smith, VJ 2010, 'Differential antibacterial activities of fusiform and oval morphotypes of Phaeodactylum tricornutum' Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol 90, no. 4, pp. 769–774.
Sperstad, S, Smith, VJ & Stensvag, K 2010, 'Expression of antimicrobial peptides from Hyas araneus hemocytes following bacterial challenge in vitro' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 34, pp. 618–624.
Smith, VJ & Hauton, C 2009, 'Immunostimulation in crustacean aquaculture: does it really promote defence against pathogens?' Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, vol 40, pp. 60-64.
Smith, VJ & Fernandes, J 2009, Non-specific antimicrobial proteins of the innate system. In: Fish Defences vol 1: Immunology. in G Zaccone, J Meseguer, A García-Alaya & BG Kapoor (eds), Fish Defences: Immunology. vol. 1, Science Publishers, Enfield NJ, Jersey & Plymouth, pp. 241-275.
Desbois, AP, Mearns-Spragg, A & Smith, VJ 2009, 'A fatty acid from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is antibacterial against diverse bacteria including multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)' Marine Biotechnology, vol 11, pp. 1436-2228. DOI: 10.1007/s10126-008-9118-5
Desbois, AP, Lebl, T, Yan, L & Smith, VJ 2008, 'Isolation and structural characterisation of two antibacterial free fatty acids from the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum' Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol 81, pp. 755-764. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-008-1714-9
Hauton, C & Smith, VJ 2008, 'Studying immunity at the whole organism level.' BioEssays, vol 30, pp. 406-407.
Smith, VJ & Alday-Sanz, V 2008, 'Immune stimulants for shrimp require further testing' Global Aquaculture Advocate, vol 11, pp. 72-74.
Smith, VJ, Fernandes, JMO, Kemp, GD & Hauton, C 2008, 'Crustins: Enigmatic WAP domain-containing antibacterial proteins from crustaceans' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 32, pp. 758-772. DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2007.12.002
Brockton, V & Smith, VJ 2008, 'Crustin expression following bacterial injection and temperature change in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 32, pp. 1027-1033. DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2008.02.002
Hauton, C & Smith, VJ 2007, 'Adaptive immunity in invertebrates: a straw house without a mechanistic foundation' BioEssays, vol 29, pp. 1138-1146. DOI: 10.1002/bies.20650
Brockton, V, Hammond, JA & Smith, VJ 2007, 'Gene characterisation, isoforms and recombinant expression of carcinin, an antibacterial protein from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas' Molecular Immunology, vol 44, no. 5, pp. 943-949. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2006.03.017
Smith, VJ & Alday-Sanz, V 2007, 'Why shrimp cannot be vaccinated' Global Aquaculture Advocate, vol 10, no. 1, pp. 84-85.
Hauton, C, Brockton, V & Smith, VJ 2007, 'Changes in immune gene expression and resistance to bacterial infection in lobster (Homarus gammarus) post-larval stage VI following acute or chronic exposure to immune stimulating compounds' Molecular Immunology, vol 44, pp. 443-450. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2006.02.018
Hauton, C & Smith, VJ 2006, 'Testing immune system stimulants for the crustacean aquaculture industry' The Grower.
Hauton, C, Brockton, V & Smith, VJ 2006, 'Cloning of a crustin-like, single whey-acidic-domain antibacterial peptide from haemocytes of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, and its response to infection with bacteria' Molecular Immunology, vol 43, no. 9, pp. 1490-1496. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2005.07.029
Hammond, JA, Nakao, M & Smith, VJ 2005, 'Cloning of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alpha-2-macroglobulin cDNA from the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, and its possible role in immunity' Molecular Immunology, vol 42, no. 6, pp. 683-694. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2004.09.017
Hauton, C, Hammond, JA & Smith, VJ 2005, 'Real-time PCR quantification of the in vitro effects of crustacean immunostimulants on gene expression in lobster (Homarus gammarus) granular haemocytes' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 29, no. 1, pp. 33-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2004.05.006
Hammond, JA, Pomeroy, P, Hall, AJ & Smith, VJ 2005, 'Identification and real-time PCR quantification of phocine distemper virus in two populations of Scottish Grey seals following the 2002 epidemic' Journal of General Virology, vol 86, pp. 2563-2567.
Pomeroy, P, Hammond, JA, Hall, AJ, Lonergan, ME, Duck, CD, Smith, VJ & Thompson, H 2005, 'Morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies in Scottish grey seals: assessing the effects of the 1988 and 2002 PDV epizootics' Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 287, pp. 241-250.
Concha, MI, Smith, VJ, Castro, K, Bastias, A, Romero, A & Amthauer, RJ 2004, 'Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II are potentially important effectors of innate immunity in the teleost fish Cyprinus carpio' European Journal of Biochemistry, vol 271, pp. 2984-2990. DOI: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04228.x
Hauton, C & Smith, VJ In vitro cytotoxicity of crustacean immunostimulants for lobster haemocytes using the neutral red uptake assay.. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2003.12.003
Fernandes, JMO, Kemp, GD & Smith, VJ 2004, 'Two novel muramidases from skin mucus of rainbow trout.' Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, vol 138B, pp. 53-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.02.004
Fernandes, JMO, Molle, G, Kemp, GD & Smith, VJ 2004, 'Isolation and characterisation of oncorhyncin II, a histone H1-derived antimicrobial peptide from skin secretions of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 28, no. 2, pp. 127-138. DOI: 10.1016/S0145-305X(03)00120-4
Fernandes, JMO & Smith, VJ 2004, 'Partial purification of antibacterial proteinaceous factors from erythrocytes of Oncorhynchus mykiss' Fish and Fisheries, vol 16, pp. 19. DOI: 10.1016/S1050-4648(03)00027-5
Fernandes, J, Saint, N, Kemp, GD & Smith, VJ 2003, 'Onchorhyncin III: a potent antimicrobial peptide derived from the non-histone chromosomal protein H6 of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss' Biochemical Journal, vol 373, no. 2, pp. 621-628. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20030259
Smith, VJ, Brown, JH & Hauton, C 2003, 'Immunostimulation in crustaceans: does it really protect against infection?' Fish Shellfish Immunology, vol 15, no. 1, pp. 71-90. DOI: 10.1016/S1050-4648(02)00140-7
Fernandes, J, Kemp, GD, Molle, MG & Smith, VJ 2002, 'Anti-microbial properties of histone H2A from skin secretions of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss' Biochemical Journal, vol 368, no. 2, pp. 611-620. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20020980
Fernandes, JMO & Smith, VJ 2002, 'A novel antimicrobial function for a ribosomal peptide from rainbow trout skin' Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol 296, no. 1, pp. 167-171. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00837-9
Hammond, JA & Smith, VJ 2002, 'Lipopolysaccharide induces DNA-synthesis in a sub-population of the hemocyes from the swimming crab, Liocarcinus depurator' Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol 26, pp. 227-236.
Lorenzon, S, Francese, M, Smith, VJ & Ferrero, EA 2001, 'Heavy metals affect the circulating haemocyte number in the shrimp, Palaemon elegans' Fish Shellfish Immunology, vol 11, pp. 459-472. DOI: 10.1006/fsim.2000.0321
Hinds, NA, Smith, SL & Smith, VJ 2001, 'Antibacterial activity of shark leukocyte lysates' FASEB Journal, vol 15.
Smith, VJ & Chisholm, JRS 2001, Antimicrobial proteins in crustaceans. in G Beck, M Sugumaran & EL Cooper (eds), Phylogenetic perspectives on the vertebrate immune system. Advances in experimental medicine and biology , vol. 484, Kluwer, pp. 95-112.
Smith, VJ, Chisholm, JRS, Brown, JH, Atkinson, D (ed.) & Thorndyke, M (ed.) Developmental ecology of immunity in crustaceans.
Smith, VJ 2000, 'Fisheries Society of the British Isles (FSBI) - Annual International Symposium 5-8 July 1999 - University of St Andrews, Scotland on Environment, Development and Growth of Fishes - Preface' Fish and Fisheries, vol 10, pp. 213-214.
Smith, VJ, Fernandes, JMO, Jones, SJ, Kemp, GD & 1, O 2000, 'Antibacterial proteins in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss' Fish Shellfish Immunology, vol 10, pp. 243-260.
Kemp, GD, Relf, JM, Chisholm, JRS & Smith, VJ 1999, 'Purification and characterisation of a cysteine-rich 11.5 kDa antibacterial protein from the granular haemocytes of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas' European Journal of Biochemistry, vol 264, pp. 350-357.
Walton, A, Montanie, H, Arcier, J-M, Smith, VJ & Bonami, JR 1999, 'Construction of a gene probe for the detection of P virus (Reoviridae) infections in decapod crustaceans.' Journal of Virological Methods, vol 81, pp. 183-192.
Smith, VJ & Walton, A 1999, 'Primary culture of the hyaline haemocytes from marine decapods' Fish Shellfish Immunology, vol 9, pp. 181-194.
Lorenzon, S, De Guarrini, S, Smith, VJ & Ferrero, EA 1999, 'Effects of LPS injection on circulating haemocytes in crustaceans in vivo' Fish Shellfish Immunology, vol 9, pp. 31-50.
Craggs, RJ, McAuley, PJ & Smith, VJ 1997, 'Tertiary treatment of wastewater by marine microalgae grown on a corrugated raceway' Water Research, vol 31, pp. 1701-1707.
Smith, VJ, Schnapp, D & Kemp, GD 1996, 'Purification and characterization of a proline-rich antibacterial peptide, with sequence similarity to bactenecin-7, from the haemocytes of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas' European Journal of Biochemistry, vol 240, pp. 532-539.

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