Profile

Dr Ellen Garland

Dr Ellen Garland
Royal Society University Research Fellow


 

Research Interests

My broad research interests include animal culture, social learning, bioacoustics, and behavioural ecology. My main research focuses on cetaceans, and in particular the cultural transmission, vocal learning, and function of humpback whale song. I am also interested in vocal sequence analysis techniques, and using similarity in vocal displays to define population structures for conservation management.

Current Projects

Sexy singing: Cultural evolution and sexual selection in a complex song display

The role of sexual selection in signal evolution is a major topic of evolutionary research, not least in vocal displays such as song. Are some songs attractive because of who sings them, or do they have inherent qualities that make them attractive when sung by anyone? Despite decades of research on sexual selection, this is not always clear. In humpback whales, only males sing, and thousands of males can rapidly replace their song by learning a new song in as little as two months, a feat unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Song presents an interplay between cultural evolution and sexual selection; however, we have little understanding of how the most complex vocal display in the animal kingdom is governed by these selective forces. This project seeks to explore the underlying selective forces interacting and governing various aspects of humpback whales song. These fundamental concepts are central to advancing our understanding of the evolution of complex communication in human and non-human animals, as cetaceans represent a unique example on the continuum of cultural complexity. Follow along with PhD students Franca Eichenberger, Sara Niksic and me as we investigate song function.

Central and eastern South Pacific song transmission

Male humpbacks sing an elaborate, hierarchically structured vocal display specific to their breeding population. Moreover, thousands of males can synchronously change their population-specific song to a new version introduced from a neighbouring population in as little as two months. This phenomenon, termed a ‘song revolution’, appears unparalleled in any other animal except humans. We have previously shown that songs pass repeatedly across the South Pacific, stepping between populations from east Australia in the west to French Polynesia in the east. Songs appear to originate from west Australia located in the Indian Ocean, representing a ~6,000 mile transmission. The vocal linkage between the Indian and South Pacific Ocean basins raises the question of how far a single song type can be transmitted. Follow along with PhD student Natalie Sinclair and me as we investigate whether song revolutions continue to spread into the eastern South Pacific.

Previous postdoctoral fellowships:

Newton International Fellowship (University of St Andrews)

Culture in whales: transmission of a complex display

Animal culture and social learning is a ground-breaking area of research, with growing evidence of cultural processes in primates, cetaceans, and birds. Humpback whale songs are one of the most startling examples of transmission of a cultural trait and social learning in any non-human animal. Recent work has demonstrated a clear pattern of complete population-wide changes that were replicated in multiple populations over a vast geographic region. The level and rate of change is unparalleled in the animal kingdom; humpback whales are thus excellent models for studying cultural evolution processes in non-humans. Research conducted during my Newton fellowship into song learning has revealed that humpback whales employ some of the same learning mechanisms as songbirds and humans when acquiring a new song, which we recently published in PNAS.

National Academy of Sciences (NRC) Postdoctoral Fellowship (Marine Mammal Lab, AFSC/NOAA)

Geographic variation in the dialects of Alaskan Arctic beluga populations

Populations of beluga seasonally migrate to summering areas within the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. The aim of this study was to identify population-specific differences in call characteristics or dialects among the three populations of beluga (eastern Beaufort Sea, eastern Chukchi Sea and Norton Sound) that migrate annually to the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, to provide baseline information for noise impact studies in the region. This work allowed previously unresolved population movements throughout the Alaskan region to be traced using fine-scale differences in spatio-temporal peaks in calling, and highlighted the successful application of acoustical studies to improve our understanding of stock structure for management and conservation in a region undergoing rapid climate change.

source: symbiosis

 

Recent publications


21  (of 21 published available) for ecg5. (source: University of St Andrews PURE)
Please click title of any item for full details.

2019 (8/3)
Science
vol.363 pp.1032-1034
(Article)
Animal cultures matter for conservation
Philippa Brakes, Sasha R. X. Dall, Lucy M. Aplin, Stuart Bearhop, Emma Louise Carroll, Paolo Ciucci, Vicki Fishlock, John K. B. Ford, Ellen Clare Garland, Sally A. Keith, Peter K. McGregor, Sarah L. Mesnick, Michael J. Noad, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Martha M. Robbins, Mark P. Simmonds, Fernando Spina, Alex Thornton, Paul R. Wade, Martin J. Whiting, James Williams, Luke Edward Rendell, Hal Whitehead, Andrew Whiten, Christian Rutz 
2018 (6)
Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
vol.152 pp.182-194
(Article)
Beluga whales in the western Beaufort Sea
Kathleen M. Stafford, Megan C. Ferguson, Donna D. W. Hauser, Stephen R. Okkonen, Catherine L. Berchok, John J. Citta, Janet T. Clarke, Ellen Clare Garland, Joshua Jones, Robert S. Suydam 
Keywords: Beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, Alaska, Beaufort Sea, Aerial surveys, Satellite telemetry, Passive acoustic monitoring
2018 (21/11)
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
vol.285 
(Article)
2018 (11)
Royal Society Open Science
vol.5 
(Article)
Culturally transmitted song exchange between humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the southeast Atlantic and southwest Indian Ocean basins
Melinda L Rekdahl, Ellen Clare Garland, Gabriella A Carvajal, Carissa D. King, Tim Collins, Yvette Razafindrakoto, Howard Rosenbaum 
Keywords: Song, Humpback whale, Population structure, Cultural transmission, Africa
2018
Music & Science
vol.1 
(Article)
Using agent-based models to understand the role of individuals in the song evolution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)
Michael Mcloughlin, Ellen Clare Garland, Simon Ingram, Alexis Kirke, Michael J Noad, Luke Edward Rendell, Eduardo Miranda 
Keywords: Agent-based model, Humpback whale, Song, Song evolution, Vocal learning
2017 (25/7)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
vol.114 pp.7822-7829
(Article)
2017 (31/7)
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
vol.142 pp.460-472
(Article)
The devil is in the detail
Ellen Clare Garland, Luke Edward Rendell, Matthew Lilley, M. Michael Poole, Jenny Allen, Michael J. Noad 
Keywords: Song, Sequence, Cultural evolution, Levenshtein distance, Humpback whale
2017 (10/10)
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
vol.142 pp.1943-1952
(Article)
2016 (2)
Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
vol.91 pp.13-52
(Article)
Acoustic sequences in non-human animals
Arik Kershenbaum, Dan Blumstein, Marie Roch, Çaglar Akçay, Gregory Backus, Mark A. Bee, Kirsten Bohn, Yan Cao, Gerald Carter, Michael Coen, Stacy Lynn De Ruiter, Laurance Doyle, Shimon Edelman, Ramon Ferrer-i-Cancho, Todd M. Freeberg, Ellen Clare Garland, Morgan Gustison, Heidi E. Harley, Chloé Huetz, Melissa Hughes, Julia Hyland Bruno, Amiyaal Ilany, Dezhe Z. Jin, Michael Johnson, Chenghui Ju, Jeremy Karnowski, Bernard Lohr, Marta Manser, Brenda McCowan, Eduardo Mercado III, Peter M. Narins, Alex Piel, Megan Rice, Roberta Salmi, Kazutoshi Sasahara, Laela Sayigh, Yu Shiu, Charles Taylor, Edgar E. Vallejo, Sara Waller, Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez 
Keywords: Acoustic communication, Information, Information theory, Machine learning, Markov model, Meaning, Network analysis, Vocalisation
2016 (31/8)
pp.274-280
(Conference contribution)
Adapting a computational multi agent model for humpback whale song research for use as a tool for algorithmic composition
Michael Mcloughlin, Simon Ingram, Luke Edward Rendell, Alexis Kirke, Ellen Clare Garland, Michael Noad, Eduardo Miranda 
2016 (1)
Ecological Informatics
vol.31 pp.122-136
(Article)
Management of acoustic metadata for bioacoustics
Marie Roch, Heidi Batchelor, Simone Baumann-Pickering, Catherine Berchok, Danielle Cholewiak, Ei Fujioka, Ellen Clare Garland, Sean Herbert, John Hildebrand, Erin Oleson, Sofie Van Parijs, Denise Risch, Ana Å irović, Melissa Soldevilla 
Keywords: Bioacoustics, Metadata, Call spatiotemporal database, Environmental data access
2015 (6)
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
vol.137 pp.3054-3067
(Article)
2015 (6)
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
vol.137 pp.3042-3053
(Article)
Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales
Melinda Rekdahl, Rebecca Dunlop, Anne Goldizen, Ellen Clare Garland, Nicoletta Biassoni, Patrick Miller, Michael Noad 
2015 (8)
Conservation Biology
vol.29 pp.1198-1207
(Article)
2015 (12)
Methods in Ecology and Evolution
vol.6 pp.1452-1461
(Article)
2013 (20/11)
PLoS One
vol.8 
(Article)
2013 (1)
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
vol.133 pp.560-569
(Article)
Quantifying humpback whale song sequences to understand the dynamics of song exchange at the ocean basin scale
Ellen Clare Garland, Michael J. Noad, Anne W. Goldizen, Matthew S. Lilley, Melinda L. Rekdahl, Claire Garrigue, Rochelle Constantine, Nan Daeschler Hauser, M. Michael Poole, Jooke Robbins 
Keywords: MEGAPTERA-NOVAEANGLIAE, CULTURAL TRANSMISSION, BREEDING GROUNDS, BIRD SONG, CLASSIFICATION
2011 (26/4)
Current Biology
vol.21 pp.687-691
(Article)
Dynamic horizontal cultural transmission of humpback whale song at the ocean basin scale
Ellen Clare Garland, Anne W. Goldizen, Melinda L. Rekdahl, Rochelle Constantine, Claire Garrigue, Nan Daeschler Hauser, M. Michael Poole, Jooke Robbins, Michael J. Noad 
Keywords: Megaptera-novaeangliae, Breeding grounds, Chimpanzees

Contact Details:

Dr Ellen Garland
Harold Mitchell Building
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
KY16 9TH
Fife
UK

tel: +44-7478-649964
fax:
room: 305
email: ecg5@st-andrews.ac.uk

Related:

research@st-andrews
Whale song culture
Sea Mammal Research Unit
Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolution
School of Biology
Centre for Biological Diversity
Scottish Oceans Institute

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Contact

The Secretary
Scottish Oceans Institute
Institiud Chuantan na h-Alba
Gatty Marine Laboratory
East Sands St Andrews
KY16 8LB
Scotland
UK

tel: +44 (0) 1334 463472
fax: +44 (0) 1334 463443
email: soi@st-andrews.ac.uk

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